California brick
CALIFORNIA BRICKS


Dickey Company letterhead
Letterhead donated by Chris and Sandra Ingram

Livermore Fire Brick Works
W. S. Dickey Clay Manufacturing Company, Plant No. 19

History


On February 19, 1917, Walter S. Dickey, owner of W. S. Dickey Clay Manufacturing Company, Kansas City, Missouri, purchased the plant and property of the
Livermore Fire Brick Company at a sheriff's public auction when the former owners ran into financial difficulties. This plant was located in Brickyard Shopping Center on Stanley Blvd. and Railroad Avenue in Livermore. Walter S. Dickey's main plant in Missouri manufactured W.S. Dickey mainly terra cotta sewer pipe, but it was at this time when Dickey decided to embark in the brick-making business. Instead of building new brick plants, he preferred to purchase established brick plants that already had a built-in market for its bricks. His industrial empire in the United States grew to 19 plants with the purchase of the Livermore plant. W. S. Dickey Clay Manufacturing Company owned plants in 13 states. Walter S. Dickey was a native of Toronto, Canada. He went to Kansas City, Missouri, to manufacture mainly terra cotta sewer pipes and other clay products. 32 years later, he purchased the brick plant in Livermore, California, but interestingly he did not sell it to his own company, W. S. Dickey Clay Manufacturing Company, until nine years later probably because the plant produced only bricks, not clay pipes.

In 1917, Walter S. Dickey immediately changed the management of the Livermore plant. General Manager T. L. Myers was replaced by Nathaniel A. Dickey as general manager and superintendent of both the Livermore plant and California Brick Company's plant in Decoto, which Dickey also owned. Nathaniel was the father of Walter Dickey. E. H. Covalt remained as the secretary of the company through the transition. In March 1917, the name of the company was changed from Livermore Fire Brick Company to the Livermore Fire Brick Works. The company office was located at 604 Mission Street in San Francisco.

The new company constructed two round muffle kilns, a new drier using waste heat from the kilns instead of steam from pipes, a large tank, and several large sheds, including a terra cotta molding room. In 1920, the works consisted of six down-draft kilns (two 30-foot and four 26-foot in diameter), two square muffle kilns, two round muffle kilns, one American repress machine with capacity of 25,000, one auger machine with capacity of 25,000, one dry press with capacity of 20,000. They employed an average of 50 workers. William Hyslof (Hislop) was yard superintendent. In 1920, a service yard was opened at 7th and Hooper streets in San Francisco, where they carried a full line of products from the Livermore Fire Brick Works as well as from their affiliate California Brick Company at Decoto.

W.S. Dickey brickyard in Livermore
View of the Livermore Fire Brick Works in 1923. From Oakland Tribune Annual Year Book, 1923.

In May 1922, H. L. Bramwell was placed in charge of the chemistry department in their new laboratory for carrying out analytical and research work on clay products. Bramwell was a graduate of the chemistry department of the University of Illinois. The company's 1924 catalog state, "The scientific ceramists of the Livermore Fire Brick Works have developed Dickey Fire Brick and the Dickey Fire Brick Research and Laboratory service to a point where hit-and-miss selection of firebrick is no longer necessary. The work of scientific supervision begins with the selection at the mines of fire clays which compare favorably with high grade eastern clays. The No. 1 fire clay, forming the basis of the Dickey mixes, is the most highly refractory clay found in California. The mine from which this clay is taken is operated exclusively by Livermore Fire Brick Works. The blending of these clays is the second step which the Livermore Fire Brick Laboratory has perfected after years of experimentation. To deliver to users of Dickey Fire Brick a throughly standardized product, every step in the burning of the brick is carefully supervised by our technicians and the quality is maintained by a continuous program of research and factory production control. Therefore, variations in the quality of Dickey Fire Brick is not possible. Tests are made in accordance with those recommended by the American Society for Testing Materials, internationally recognized. The work of the Dickey Laboratory does not stop with the manufacture of uniformly high quality brick. Over a period of years, data have been tabulated for each industry covering the operating temperatures of furnaces, character of furnace slags, sudden temperature variations, nature of kiln gases, loads at high temperatures for furnace walls, and abrasion to which furnace walls or bottoms are subjected. We are, therefore, in a position to offer sound counsel to customers as to the proper use and placement of a fire-brick type to meet specific conditions."

The products included firebrick, which were embossed with LIVERMORE FIRE BRICKS WKS., SF, face brick, pressed brick, enamel brick, ornamental brick, hearth and mantel tile, and a new line of architectural terra cotta called polychrome terra cotta. The company received large orders for their polychrome terra cotta for new buildings in Oakland and San Francisco. The Mills Building in San Francisco and the Bank of Italy Building (Independent Building) in Livermore are fine examples of their terra cotta products. Livermore buff face bricks were popular and were used in the Tribune Tower, Thomas Building, and Durant Motor Company Plant in Oakland, the Alexander Building in San Francisco, and in many buildings in the Livermore area.

W.S. Dickey terra cotta in the Bank of Italy at Livermore
Livermore architectural terra cotta on the Bank of Italy (Independent) Building, Livermore.

The Livermore Fire Brick Works manufactured four types of firebrick, according to their 1924 catalog:

DICKEY SUPREME firebrick was a hand-molded, unrepressed firebrick. It was a brick of very porous structure, allowing rapid heat penetration and designed to resist sudden temperature variations. It was for use where extremely high temperatures were encountered; designed for use where oil or gas flames directly impinge on the brick work. It was a Class "A" high heat duty brick, with fusion point cone 32, 3,218 degrees F., old temperature scale; 3,101 degrees F., corrected temperature scale.

W.S. Dickey Supreme firebrick
Photo courtesy of Steve Curtiss


DICKEY PREMIER firebrick was a stiff-mud process firebrick, machine repressed. It had a porous or open structure, designed to resist sudden temperature variations. It was used where high temperatures were encountered and was able to sustain loads. It was a Class "A" high heat duty brick, with fusion point cone 31, 3,182 degrees F., old temperature scale; 3,065 degrees F., corrected temperature scale.

W.S. Dickey Premier firebrick


DICKEY STAR brick was a stiff-mud process firebrick, machine repressed. It was designed to resist abrasion and clinker action. It had a low porosity and able to support heavy loads and its dense structure resisted slag penetration. It was a No. 2 intermediate heat duty brick, with fusion control cone 30, 3,146 degrees F., old temperature scale, 3,038 degrees F.; corrected temperature scale.

W.S. Dickey Star firebrick


GASFRAX firebrick was a stiff-mud process firebrick, machine repressed. It had a low iron content, designed for use in gas generators, and resistant to action of carbon monoxide. Its high silica content assured high thermal conductivity.

Dickey fire clay and firebrick dust used for setting up was also sold. Dickey Special Mix Fire Clay was a mixture of fire clay and ground fire brick dust similar in composition to their best grades of firebrick. Dickey High Temperature Cement was used for furnace patching and slushing.

An experimental firebrick given the name DICKEY-TESLA was made in 1923 when a refractory clay was discovered in the Ryan clay mine on the Tesla property, 12 miles east of Livermore. The high-grade clay seam was reported to be 12 feet thick. About 50 tons of this clay was shipped and made into firebrick.

W.S. Dickey Tesla firebrick


M. R. Henry, editor of the Livermore Herald, wrote about his visit to the Livermore brick plant in 1925, and said, "Bricks in untold thousands, of every color, size and shape and for every purpose greet the eye - those for building or decorative purposes attractive beyond description. One marvels that such beauty can be created from the raw materials that can be seen at the plant."

Late in 1926, W. S. Dickey sold the Livermore Fire Brick Works to the W. S. Dickey Clay Manufacturing Company and changed its name to W. S. Dickey Clay Manufacturing Company, Plant No. 19. Nathaniel A. Dickey remained as manager and Thomas Mann as the plant superintendent. The company's offices were located at 116 New Montgomery Street in San Francisco and 2053 Webster Street in Oakland. In 1928, Superintendent Mann resigned and Charles Turner became the superintendent. When Walter S. Dickey died on January 22, 1931, there were fears of plant closures. Then Nathaniel A. Dickey, the president and manager, announced his retirement in June 1931. E. C. Moore became the new manager. In August 1933, after a year of plant closure, Lester J. Duffy became the new manager and reopened the plant with 35 workers. On November 11, 1935, Fred L. Dickey, president, died in Kansas City, Missouri. The Dickey plant operated intermittently until it closed in the summer of 1936. The brick property was sold to the Stockton Fire Brick Company in 1937. See Stockton Fire Brick Company, Livermore, for the continuation of the history of this plant.

Dickey Livermore Bricks

Firebrick

LIVERMORE PREMIER firebrick has a light buff, salmon, or yellow refractory clay body with a smooth crackled surface. The light buff and salmon varieties show 10 percent rounded blistered brown iron spots up to 1/4 inch across, 3 percent subangular white quartz, and 15 percent cream subangular feldspar. The yellow variety has an interior of dense yellow clay. The face displays high-angled curved wire-cut grooves and pits. There are four variations of the PREMIER firebrick shown below. The first is impressed into one face the brand name on two lines LIVERMORE PREMIER as recessed block letters within rounded rectangular name plates. The narrow rounded rectangular plate is a distinguishing feature on bricks made by the Livermore Fire Brick Works. The top name plate, which is centered on the face of the brick is 4 5/8 inches long and 3/4 inch high. The LIVERMORE name spans 3 7/8 inches in length and 1/2 inch in height. The bottom name plate 4 1/4 inches long and 3/4 inch high. The PREMIER name spans 3 1/4 inches in length and is 1/2 inch in height.

W.S. Dickey Livermore Premier firebrick
View of the face of a Livermore Premier firebrick. The right side and
bottom have been cut, so it is not showing the full size of the brick.

The second example is the reverse of the previous example with PREMIER above LIVERMORE, both recessed in round rectangular plates. The top plate is 4 1/4 inches in length and 3/4 inch in height, with the name PREMIER spanning 3 1/2 inches in height and 1/2 inch in height. The bottom plate is 5 inches in length and 3/4 inch in height, with the name LIVERMORE spanning 4 1/8 inches in length and 1/2 inch in height.

W.S. Dickey Premier Livermore firebrick
View of the face of a Premier Livermore firebrick.

The third example shows two round rectangular plates. The top name plate, which is centered in the face of the brick, is 6 7/8 inches in length and 9/16 inch in height. It contains the name PREMIER in recessed block letters that span a length of 3 3/4 inches and is 9/16 inch in height. The bottom plate is blank and the same size as the top and sits 1/2 inch below the top plate.

W.S. Dickey Livermore Premier firebrick
View of the face of a Livermore Premier firebrick without the company name.

The fourth example has two name plates which are 4 5/8 inches long and 1/2 inch high. The top plate contains the brand name PREMIER in recessed block letters that span a length of 3 3/4 inches and is 1/2 inch high. The bottom plate contains the company name LIVERMORE F. B. WKS. S.F. in recessed block letters. These bricks were made using the stiff-mud extruded process, wire-cut face, and repressed. Manufactured from 1917 to 1926 by the Livermore Fire Brick Works. Length 8 7/8, width 4 3/8, height 2 1/2 inches.

W.S. Dickey Premier firebrick
View of the face of a Livermore Premier firebrick with the company name.


LIVERMORE STAR firebrick has a light buff to salmon refractory clay body with large round to irregular shaped, blistered, black or gray iron spots up to 3/4 inch across. Some may have subangular white quartz grog up to 1/4 inch across. Some may have porous interiors with pits as much as 1/2 inch across and numerous smaller pits. The surface is smooth. High-angled curved wire-cut grooves are displayed on the faces. Impressed into one face is the brand name LIVERMORE recessed in block letters in a rounded rectangular name plate and a star symbol recessed either below or above the name, as shown in the two variations. The name plate is 4 7/8 inches long and 3/4 inch high. The LIVERMORE name spans 4 3/8 inches in length and 1/2 inch in height. A second smaller rounded rectangular plate either above or below the name plate is 4 1/2 inches long and 3/4 inch high. The star symbol is 1 inch across centered with an imprint of a screw head. A third variation of the Livermore Star firebrick is shown which has the name STAR spelled out in the top rounded rectangular name plate, a blank center rounded rectangular plate, and the company name LIVERMORE F.B. WKS. S.F. in the bottom rounded rectangular name plate. These were made using the stiff-mud extruded process, wire-cut, and repressed. Manufactured from 1917 to 1926 by the Livermore Fire Brick Works. Length 8 7/8, width 4 3/8, height 2 1/2 inches.

W.S. Dickey Livermore Star firebrick
View of the face of a Livermore Star firebrick with the star on the bottom.

W.S. Dickey Livermore Star firebrick
View of the face of a Livermore Star firebrick with the star on the top.
The name and star symbol are recessed in the face of the brick, even though they appear to be raised.

W.S. Dickey Livermore Star firebrick
View of the face of a Livermore Star firebrick with the name star on the top. Donated by Stan Old.


LIVERMORE STAR No. 1 Arch 2 1/8 firebrick has a salmon refractory clay body with 5 percent round black iron spots up to 1/8 inch across. Some of the large iron spots contain blister holes. It also contain 20 percent grog of subangular white quartz up to 1/4 inch across. The surface is smooth with minor crazing. Faces show high-angled curved wire-cut grooves. The brick is wedged shape along the short edge. Impressed into one face are the names on three lines as recessed block letters inside rounded rectangular name plates. The name plates are all the same size being 6 7/8 inches long and 5/8 inch high. The top line is imprinted with NO. 1 ARCH 2 1/8 IN. and spans 5 7/8 inches in length and is 1/2 inch in height. The middle line is imprinted with the brand name STAR, which spans 2 1/4 inches in length and 1/2 inch in height. The bottom line is imprinted with the company name LIVERMORE F.B. WKS. S.F., which spans a length of 6 1/4 inches and is 1/2 inch high. These were made using the stiff-mud extruded process, wire-cut, and repressed. Manufactured from 1917 to 1926 by the Livermore Fire Brick Works. Length 8 7/8, width 4 1/2, height 2 1/2 - 2 1/8 inches.

W.S. Dickey Star No. 1 Arch firebrick
View of the face of a Livermore Star No. 1 Arch 2 1/8 firebrick.


DICKEY PREMIER firebrick has a dense yellow refractory clay body with a smooth surface showing rounded blistered brown iron spots up to 1/4 inch across. The sides and ends display a crackled surface with longitudinal grooves. High-angled curved wire-cut grooves are present on faces. Impressed into one face is the brand name DICKEY PREMIER as recessed block letters within a rounded rectangular name plate. The name plate, which is centered on the face of the brick, is 6 7/8 inches long and 9/16 inch high. The name spans 3 5/8 inches in length and 9/16 inch in height. These were made using the stiff-mud extruded process, wire-cut, and repressed. Manufactured from 1927 to 1936 by the W.S. Dickey Clay Manufacturing Company. Length 8 7/8, width 4 3/8, height 2 1/2 inches.

W.S. Dickey Premier firebrick
View of the face of a Dickey Premier firebrick.


DICKEY STAR firebrick has a dense light buff to salmon refractory clay body with a smooth surface. A grog of subangular white quartz up to 1/4 inch across constitutes about 10 percent and small rusty iron spots up to 1/16 inch across constitutes about 3 percent. Longitudinal grooves and high-angled curved wire-cut grooves are present on some sides. The faces show small cracks. The interior is composed of dense, flaky light buff clay. Impressed into one face is the brand name on two lines. The top rounded rectangular plate is 6 7/8 inches long and 5/8 inch high. It contains the company name W.S. DICKEY CLAY MFG. CO. in recessed block letters that span a length of 5 1/2 inches and is 9/16 inch high. The bottom rounded rectangular plate is 1 1/2 inches below the top plate and has the same length as the top plate, but is 1/2 inch high. It contains the brand name STAR in recessed block letters that span a length of 2 1/4 inches and is 1/2 inch high. A variation of this is the imprint of the STAR above the company name or the STAR name imprinted upside down. These were made using the stiff-mud extruded process, wire-cut, and repressed. Manufactured from 1927 to 1936 by the W.S. Dickey Clay Manufacturing Company. Length 8 7/8, width 4 3/8, height 2 1/2 inches.

W.S. Dickey Star firebrick
View of the face of a Dickey Star firebrick.

W.S. Dickey Star firebrick
View of the face of a Dickey Star firebrick without the company name.


DICKEY-TESLA firebrick has a yellowish cream refractory clay body with a smooth crackled surface showing lots of small pits. Light brown flashing can be seen on the side and faint transverse striations on the ends. High-angled curved wire-cut grooves are displayed on faces. Impressed on a face of the brick is the brand name DICKEY-TESLA recessed in block letters in a rounded rectangular name plate that is 6 3/4 inches long and 1/2 inch high. The name spans a length of 5 1/4 inches and is 1/2 inch high. The rounded rectangular plate above the one containing the name is blank. These were made using the stiff-mud extruded process, wire-cut, and repressed. Manufactured only in 1923 by the W.S. Dickey Clay Manufacturing Company. Length 8 7/8, width 4 3/8, height 2 1/2 inches.

W.S. Dickey Tesla firebrick
View of the face of a Dickey-Tesla firebrick.


Face Brick

Livermore Fire Brick Works face brick is light buff and uniform in color. Darker shades and mottled versions with buff to orange-brown colors were also made. Sides and ends are smooth and freckled with round brown iron spots up to 1/16 inch across on the surface. The iron spots are usually less than 5 percent in volume but darker varieties may approach 10 percent. Sides and ends often display irregular spacings of faint transverse grooves. Ends often show characteristic transverse grooves about a half inch from both short edges. Corners are sharp and the edges are straight and sharp. Low-angled wire-cut grooves, slight velour texture, and tiny pits may be seen on some faces, but pressed brick may not display these marks or show them very faintly. Impressed on one of the sides is the company name LIVERMORE F.B. WKS. S.F. recessed in block letters and set inside a rectangular plate. The plate and name are 6 1/2 inches long and 5/8 inches high. Manufactured from 1917 to 1926 by the Livermore Fire Brick Works. These were made using the stiff-mud extruded process, wire-cut, and repressed. Length 8 3/8, width 3 7/8, height 2 3/8 inches.

W.S. Dickey face brick marked side
View of the company name impressed on the side of a Livermore Fire Brick Works face brick.

W.S. Dickey face brick side
View of the side of the Livermore Fire Brick Works face bricks commonly seen on the face of buildings.

W.S. Dickey face brick face
View of the face of a Livermore Fire Brick Works face brick.

W.S. Dickey face brick sides
View of the sides of a Livermore Fire Brick Works face brick showing round iron spots.

W.S. Dickey face brick ends
View of the ends of a Livermore Fire Brick Works face brick. Note
the characteristic faint transverse grooves near the short edges.

W.S. Dickey face brick sides
View of the sides of a Livermore Fire Brick Works face brick of different shades.

W.S. Dickey face brick sides
View of the ends of a Livermore Fire Brick Works face brick
with characteristic transverse grooves near the short edges.

W.S. Dickey face brick sides
View of the sides of a Livermore Fire Brick Works face brick. Note both sharp and rounded short edges.


Dickey face brick is light buff, dark buff, salmon, or orange-brown. Some are uniform, some are mottled with an irregular pattern of orange-brown. Sides and ends are smooth with round to irregular shaped brown to black iron spots ranging up to 1/2 inch across on the surface. The iron spots is no more than 5 percent in volume. Sides and ends often display irregular spacings of faint transverse grooves. One distinguishing feature are transverse grooves 1/2 to 5/8 inch from the edge of the brick on the ends. Corners are sharp and the edges are straight and sharp. Low-angled curved wire-cut grooves and small pits may be seen on some faces, but pressed brick may not display these marks or show them very faintly. Impressed on one of the sides is the company name W.S. DICKEY CLAY MFG. CO. recessed in block letters and set inside a rectangular plate, some deep enough to display beveled edges. The plate is 6 3/8 inches long and 1 to 1 1/4 inches high. The name spans 6 1/8 inches and is 15/16 to 1 inch high. Two round screw head impressions 1/4 inch across are set within the name. Manufactured from 1927 to 1936 by the W. S. Dickey Clay Manufacturing Company. These were made using the stiff-mud extruded process, wire-cut, and repressed. Length 8 3/8, width 3 7/8 - 4, height 2 3/8 - 2 1/2 inches.

W.S. Dickey face brick
View of the side and end of Dickey face bricks in the building at 630 Lombard St., San Francisco.

W.S. Dickey face brick marked side
View of the company name impressed on the side of a Dickey face brick.


Dickey iron spotted pressed face brick is buff and uniform in color. Surfaces are smooth with straight and sharp edges and sharp corners. Prominent feature are the round black iron spots constituting about 30 percent of the volume and ranging up to 1/4 inch across on the surface, giving the brick a freckled appearance. The larger iron spots has blister holes in the center. Impressed on one of the sides is the company name W.S. DICKEY CLAY MFG. CO. recessed in block letters and set inside a rectangular plate, which may be off-centered. The plate is 6 inches long and 1 1/8 inches high. The name spans 6 inches and is 1 inch high. Manufactured from 1927 to 1936 by the W. S. Dickey Clay Manufacturing Company. These were made using the stiff-mud extruded process, wire-cut, and repressed. Length 8 3/8, width 3 7/8, height 2 1/2 inches.

W.S. Dickey iron spotted face brick
View of the side of Dickey iron-spotted pressed face brick with company name imprinted.


Ruffled Face Brick

Dickey ruffled face brick is light buff, dark buff, salmon, or orange-brown, uniform in color. Less than 5 percent rounded brown iron spots up to 1/4 inch across can be seen on some surfaces. One side and both ends display transverse grooves that are evenly spaced, about 1/4 inch apart, with 32 grooves on the side and 16 grooves on the end. The grooves were cut in such a way that it made a bark-like texture that the Dickey Company called ruffled texture. Edges are straight. Corners may be rounded or dull. Low-angled curved wire-cut grooves are displayed on faces. Impressed on one of the sides is the company name W.S. DICKEY CLAY MFG. CO. recessed in block letters and set inside a rectangular plate, some deep enough to display beveled edges. The plate is 6 3/8 inches long and 1 to 1 1/4 inches high. The name spans 6 1/8 inches and is 15/16 to 1 inch high. Two round screw head impressions 1/4 inch across are set within the name. Manufactured from 1927 to 1936 by the W. S. Dickey Clay Manufacturing Company. These were made using the stiff-mud extruded process, wire-cut, and repressed. Length 8 1/8, width 3 /7/8 - 4, height 2 3/8 inches.

W.S. Dickey ruffled face brick
View of Dickey ruffled face bricks in the building at 237 Scott St., San Francisco.


Rug Face Brick

Dickey rug face brick is buff and mottled with light red flash color. The surface is smooth with visible white quartz grains. The form is perfect with straight and sharp edges and sharp corners, if not broken. The faces display low-angled curved wire-cut marks. The rug textured side contains 12 to 13 deeply scored transverse grooves that are spaced 3/8 to 3/4 inch apart. The ends have 7 to 8 transverse grooves. The grooves are v-shaped cuts 1/4 inch deep. On the back side of the brick is stamped the company name "W. S. DICKEY CLAY MFG. CO." in recessed block letters that may be truncated and not centered, indicating that the name was stamped on a moving conveyor at intervals not exactly coinciding with the cutter. The interior contains 5 percent subrounded grains of white quartz, averaging 1/16 inch across, in a compact buff clay body. The brick was made by the stiff-mud, extruded, wire-cut process. Length 8 1/2, width 4, height 2 1/4 inches.

W.S. Dickey rug face brick
View of the textured side of the Dickey rug face brick.


W.S. Dickey rug face brick marked side
View of the marked back side of the Dickey rug face brick.


Pebble Face Brick

Dickey pebble face brick is light buff, salmon, or orange-brown, with round brown to black iron spots up to 1/4 inch across, constituting less than 5 percent by volume. Some surfaces are mottled with light and dark colors. One side and both ends have a pebbly texture composed of raised oval shapes 1/2 to 1 inch across.The short edges are straight and sharp. The long edges are straight and rounded, except for the side which has the company name imprinted, which has sharp edges. The name plate is 6 1/4 inches long and 1 1/8 inches high. The company name W.S. DICKEY CLAY MFG. CO. S.F. is in recessed block letters spanning a length of 6 3/16 inches and 7/8 inch in height. Two round screw head impressions 1/4 inch across are set within the name. The pebble texture is unique to the Dickey Company. Low-angled curved wire-cut grooves are displayed on faces. Manufactured from 1927 to 1936 by the W. S. Dickey Clay Manufacturing Company. These were made using the stiff-mud extruded process, wire-cut, and repressed. Length 8 3/8, width 4, height 2 1/2 inches.

W.S. Dickey pebble face brick
View of Dickey pebble face bricks in the building at 660 Lombard, San Francisco.


Rock Face Brick

Dickey rock face brick is iron-spotted salmon, with round brown to black iron spots up to 1/4 inch across, constituting less than 5 percent by volume. The edges are straight and sharp. Both faces display low-angled wire-cut grooves. All sides and ends are smooth except for one side, which is roughly broken for the rock face texture. These were made using the stiff-mud extruded process and hand-broken for the rock face texture. Length 8 3/8, width 3 7/8, height 2 1/2 inches.

W.S. Dickey rock face brick
View of Dickey rock face bricks.


References

Architect and Engineer, Oct. 1919, ad.

Boalich, E.S., Castello, W. O., Huguenin, Emile, Logan, C.A., and Tucker, W. Burling, The Clay Industry In California, California State Mining Bureau Preliminary Report no. 7, 1920, p. 37.

Brick and Clay Record, v. 50, no. 7, 1917, p. 666.

Brick and Clay Record, v. 50, no. 9, 1917, p. 871.

Brick and Clay Record, v. 50, no. 10, 1917, p. 967.

Brick and Clay Record, v. 51, no. 1, 1917, p. 53.

Brick and Clay Record, v. 51, no. 13, 1917, p. 1144.

Brick and Clay Record, v. 52, no. 1, 1917, p. 65.

Brick and Clay Record, v. 52, no. 13, 1918, p. 1160.

Brick and Clay Record, v. 78, no. 2, 1931, p. 71.

Drummond, Gary, 7. Livermore's First Non-agricultural Industry (Brickyard)(1908-1949), Livermore Heritage Guild Historical Sketches of Livermore Area, June 29, 1999.

Livermore Fire Brick Works, Dickey Fire Brick of Uniform Quality, Catalog, February 1924 (I thank Karl Gurcke for sending me this one!).

Livermore Herald, April 7, 1917, p. 4.

Livermore Herald, March 5, 1921, p. 1.

Livermore Herald, May 20, 1922, p. 1.

Livermore Herald, Aug. 3, 1923, p. 1.

Livermore Herald, Oct. 23, 1925, p. 1

Livermore Herald, Nov. 15, 1935, p. 2

Livermore Herald, Aug. 7, 1936, p. 1

Livermore Journal, July 27, 1923, p. 1.

Livermore Journal, Jan. 12, 1927, p. 1.

Mosier, Dan L., Brick Making in the Livermore Valley, Livermore Heritage Guild Chapters in Livermore History, Feb. 1983.

Oakland City Directory, 1923-1938.

Oakland Tribune, Annual Year Book, 1922, p. 83

Oakland Tribune, Annual Year Book, 1923, p. 76.

San Francisco City Directory, 1920-1938.

Southern Alameda County News, Aug. 31, 1933.

Copyright 2007 Dan Mosier

Contact Dan Mosier at danmosier@earthlink.net.