California brick
CALIFORNIA BRICKS


Los Angeles Pressed Brick Company, Santa Monica yard

History


Advertisement from Santa Monica Outlook, 1925.
Advertisement from Santa Monica Outlook, 1925.

The
Los Angeles Pressed Brick Company had already established a brickyard, Plant no. 1, at Cleveland and College streets in Los Angeles in 1887. In 1904, company founder Charles H. Frost was looking for better quality clay to make tile and paving bricks and found it at the brickyard of the Sunset Brick and Tile Company in Santa Monica. The Sunset Brick and Tile Company, organized in June 1903, was located east of Colorado Avenue and Cloverfield Boulevard in Santa Monica. Here they had 22 acres of clay that ranged from 10 to 35 feet in thickness, including fine vitrified clay. Negotiations between the two brick companies resulted in a merger in August 1904. The Sunset Company continued to make common bricks at the brickyard until 1907, when the company was dissolved.

The officers of the Los Angeles Pressed Brick Company in 1904 were Charles H. Frost, president; W. C. Patterson, vice-president; and West Hughes, secretary. Henry Obee was the plant superintendent. The capital stock of the company was increased from $150,000 to $250,000, divided into 1,500 shares of common and 1,000 preferred stock. This included the former stockholders of the Sunset Brick and Tile Company. The Santa Monica yard was designated Plant No. 2 of the Los Angeles Pressed Brick Company. The land holdings were expanded to 55 acres, with the newly constructed plant covering about 3 acres. New machinery worth $30,000 to $50,000 was installed. The plant was equipped for manufacturing standard and roman pressed brick, vitrified paving brick and block, roofing tile, sewer pipe, and conduits.

The clay pit was on the north side of the plant and covered several acres. According to a 1920 report by the State Mineralogist, the clay was excavated by a scraper and dumped into a car that was operated by a winch, which hauled it up the incline to the plant. However, Howard Frost, son of Charles Frost, in a letter to Brick and Clay Record in 1923, wrote, "At our Santa Monica plant we have substituted a Brookville locomotive for two horses and two men hauling the clay from the steam shovel to the concrete hopper at the base of the belt conveyor. This belt conveyor is 18 inches wide and a little over 600 feet in length, in two sections, and has been substituted for a drum and cable. It will enable us to deliver as much clay in one day as we did formerly in two. In other words, handling 450 tons a day, we will run three days instead of six, or one week instead of two weeks. Four men will be required, or equivalent to two men full time, as against six men formerly, so that the investment will pay a good return. Our steam shovel will be disposed of, if we can do so, as soon as the shale planer we have purchased arrives, and the equipment is promised for shipment by January 1. We should have it in operation on or before February 15."

Description of the plant in 1909 was as follows. Clay was stockpiled and weathered in special weathering sheds from two to six months before use. The plant had two American dry pans of 9-feet diameter, stationary piano-wire screens, an American horizontal pug mill, and unspecified brick machines. Waste heat from the kilns was used for drying in driers designed by the company. American fans drove the waste-heat system, which required 24 hours for the drying process. Driers had 57 car tracks with 16 cars to the tunnel. Each car held 500 brick. There were 11 30-feet diameter downdraft kilns connected to three chimneys and one arched tunnel kiln, 18 by 90 feet long. Crude oil, stored in three underground tanks, was used for watersmoking and burning. Power was supplied by an Allis-Chalmers Corliss engine of 150 h. p. and three boilers of 175 h. p.

On August 16, 1911, this plant was destroyed by fire caused by its dry kiln. Only the engine room survived. Loss estimated at $25,000 was covered by insurance and the plant was rebuilt. This caused a serious shortage of paving brick in Los Angeles. In July 1913, when the plant was completed, a banquet was held in one of the kilns at which the mayor of Santa Monica and other prominent citizens were present.

In 1917, the plant was described as having dry-pan crushers, a 14-foot pug mill, and a Giant stiff-mud, 18-brick wire-cutter. The bricks were dried in tunnel driers, heated by exhaust from the downdraft kilns. Downdraft kilns were 30-feet in diameter and equipped with eight or ten firing flues that burned oil. Common bricks were fired for six days and hard (vitrified) bricks for seven to eight days in the downdraft kilns. Common red bricks were also fired in open kilns. Power was supplied by a 300-h. p. boiler and a 250-h. p. Corliss steam engine. The daily capacity was 90,000 bricks. Due to the curtailment of building construction, the plant was idle for most of 1918.

In 1920, it was reported that building tile and sewer pipe were fired in 12 down-draft kilns for six days. Red mottled plastic clay from Alberhill was mixed with the local clay to make sewer pipe. Daily output was about 60,000 red brick and 8,000 building tile. The plant employed 70 workers.

View of the Los Angeles Pressed Brick Company Plant no. 2, Santa Monica. From Brick, 1909.
View of the Los Angeles Pressed Brick Company Plant no. 2, Santa Monica, before the 1911 fire. From Brick, 1909.

View of the Los Angeles Pressed Brick Company Plant no. 2, Santa Monica. From Merrill, 1917.
View of the new Los Angeles Pressed Brick Company Plant no. 2, Santa Monica, after the 1911 fire. From Merrill, 1917.

The first big contract for the Los Angeles Pressed Brick Company at the Santa Monica plant came in February 1905, when it was awarded the contract to supply 9 million sewer brick, at $6.35 per 1,000, for certain portions of the Los Angeles outfall sewer project. The plant at that time was able to furnish about 40,000 bricks per day. These were sand-molded common bricks. After the arrival of new machinery, including the Special Giant stiff-mud machine from the American Clay Manufacturing Company, the plant in 1907 was able to begin producing paving and other types of wire-cut bricks.

Cartoon from Architect and Engineer, 1907.
Cartoon from Architect and Engineer, 1907.

Because of Charles Frost's support of the "good roads movement" in California, the Los Angeles News printed the above cartoon. The paving bricks made at the Santa Monica plant were found to be superior to the common paving stone and there was a great push to use them for paving streets and gutters. Paving bricks of different markings and sizes were made over time at the Santa Monica plant and, unless we know where they came from, they are difficult to date. Generally the thicker bricks (blocks) were used to pave streets while the thinner ones lined gutters. Even the chronology of the different markings on these paving bricks are unknown. The Los Angeles plant produced paving brick prior to the Santa Monica plant and these can be distinguished perhaps by the different processing marks and by the composition of the clay, provided the clay did not come from Santa Monica. The paving bricks made at the Santa Monica plant appear to be of better quality and form, have lesser amounts of clasts, and harder vitrified clay than those made at the Los Angeles plant. It can be surmised that the paving bricks without lugs are probably the earliest and those with lugs came afterwards, based on recommendations of acceptable paving brick by the Bureau of Standards in 1922. The following examples of shipped paving bricks from the Santa Monica plant may help to provide provenance and dates if any have survived.

In 1907, an order came for 100,000 paving brick from the Sacramento Electric, Gas and Railroad Company. In February 1908, the plant was unable to meet the big demand for paving bricks, such that the Board of Public works had to substitute asphalt for brick on many streets where property owners were demanding action.

View of vitrified brick pavement in Los Angeles made by 
the Los Angeles Pressed Brick Company. From Brick, 1909.
View of vitrified brick pavement in Los Angeles made by
the Los Angeles Pressed Brick Company. From Brick, 1909.

In October 1908, several carloads of vitrified paving bricks were shipped to the Anheuser Busch Brewing Company in San Francisco. In 1909, 500 cars of brick were sent by rail to the Los Angeles-Pacific Electric Railway and used in facing its Hollywood tunnels. Because of increased demand for paving brick, it was reported that additional kilns were added in May, but evidently only one kiln was added to bring the total to 12 by 1920. In 1909, large quantity of vitrified paving brick was sent to San Francisco. Up until 1910, Los Angeles Pressed Brick Company was the only one selling paving brick in the Los Angeles region, so any streets paved with bricks in Los Angeles between 1907 and 1910 most likely came from the Santa Monica plant. In March 1910, large quantities of paving brick were shipped by lumber schooners returning to Portland, Oregon. As orders for paving brick declined, other products were made that kept the Santa Monica plant busy.

Roofing tiles made at the Santa Monica plant included Mission, Spanish, Italian, and Oriental tiles. A large order of Spanish roofing tile was sent to Central California for mission and Spanish residences in August 1913. Spanish tile was used on the grammer school at Patterson, California, Mission tile roofed the post office in Hayward, California, and First Church of Christ Scientist in Los Angeles. In 1925, the Red Granada roofing tile was used on the Science Building at University of Southern California.

The Santa Monica plant did not sell a lot of sewer pipe. The only report was in December 1913 for sewer pipe orders. Hollow building tile or partition tile was also made at the Santa Monica plant as indicated in the advertisement for Heath hollow tile below. Hollow tile went into the walls of many buildings throughout Southern California. About 1920, the Los Angeles Pressed Brick Company licensed the hollow tile from the Heath Unit Tile Company. The tile from the Santa Monica plant was red and stamped with the abbreviations of both company's name on one side of the hollow tile block.

Heath hollow tile were made at the Santa Monica plant. From Los Angeles Herald, 1920.
Heath hollow tile were made at the Santa Monica plant. From Los Angeles Herald, 1920.

Red "rug" (tapestry) brick was made in 1915 and proved very popular throughout Southern California. Transverse scoring on the sides gave the brick the look of Turkish or Persian rug, that is, a soft, non-reflective, and warm color. Rug bricks came in Standard and Roman sizes. Rug brick of other colors were made at the Los Angeles plant, while the Santa Monica plant provided different shades of red rug bricks popularly known as "Old Rose." Another popular texture was the ruffled texture, introduced in December 1909, that was put on one side and one or two ends of a face brick.

Red ruffle face bricks or Old Rose made at the Santa Monica plant.
Red ruffle face bricks or Old Rose made at the Santa Monica plant.

From 1915 to 1926, Emil Larson was the superintendent at the Santa Monica plant. In February 1926, Gladding McBean and Company had taken over the Los Angeles Pressed Brick Company through stock acquisitions. The plant was temporarily closed for a year. In 1927, F. R. White became the new manager of the plant under Gladding McBean and Company. For the continuation of this plant's history, see Gladding McBean and Company, Santa Monica yard.


Los Angeles Pressed Brick Company Brick

Paving Brick

Santa Monica paving block is the type example of paving brick made at the Santa Monica plant. It falls into the category of a lugless wire-cut paving brick, which was probably one of the first of its type made here. It is pale to dark red and uniform in color. The form is excellent with straight edges and even surfaces. All of the edges are rounded except for the 4-inch edges at both ends, which are sharp. The sides and faces are bordered with slight beveled edges and display stronger repress lines on the sides rather than on the faces. Faint transverse striations may be present on the sides and ends. Stack indentations may deform the sides a bit. A faint velour texture and angled grooves may be visible on the faces caused by the wire cutter. The marked face has three lines of lettering. The first line is SANTA MONICA in raised block letters in an arc that spans 7 3/4 inches and the letters stand 5/8 inch in height. The second line is LA.P.B.Co. in recessed block letters that span 5 inches and stand 1/2 inch, with square-shaped periods. The third line is BLOCK in raised block letters that span 3 1/8 inches and stand 5/8 inch. At each corner is a round screw imprint 1/2 inch in diameter, except for the one on the lower left, which is usually a round raised lug of the same diameter. On the reverse face are displayed round screw imprints of 1/2 inch diameter at each corner. These screw imprints may be difficult to see. The interior consists of one percent subangular white quartz, subangular white granite or feldspar, and round black iron oxides, all less than 1/16 inch in diameter, in a very hard, compact, granular, vitrified red clay body. This brick was made using the stiff-mud process and repressed. Length 8 1/2, width 4, height 2 3/8 inches.

View of the marked face of the Santa Monica Block paving brick.
View of the marked face of the Santa Monica Block paving brick.

View of the side of the Santa Monica Block paving brick.
View of the side of the Santa Monica Block paving brick.

View of the reversed face of the Santa Monica Block paving brick.
View of the reversed face of the Santa Monica Block paving brick.

Close-up view of the velour wire-cut marks on the face of the Santa Monica Block paving brick.
Close-up view of the velour wire-cut marks angled steeply
NW-SE on the face of the Santa Monica Block paving brick.

Close-up view of a protruding lug on the lower left corner of the face of the Santa Monica Block paving brick.
Close-up view of a protruding lug on the lower left corner
of the face of the Santa Monica Block paving brick.

Close-up view interior clay body of the Santa Monica Block paving brick.
Close-up view of the interior clay body
of the Santa Monica Block paving brick.

A thicker, heavier version of the Santa Monica paving block is shown next. It differs from the first one mentioned above in the following ways. Faces and sides are smooth and even. Ends are rough and has a nearly square shape. Longitudinal dashes may be present on the sides and unmarked face left by the conveyor belt imprints. A faint velour texture and longitudinal grooves or striations may be visible on the ends caused by the wire cutter (end-cut brick). The marked face has three lines of lettering. The first line is SANTA MONICA in raised block letters in an arc that spans 8 inches and the letters stand 5/8 inch in height. The second line is LA.P.B.Co. in recessed block letters that span 5 inches and stand 1/2 inch, with square-shaped periods. The third line is BLOCK in raised block letters that span 3 3/4 inches and stand 5/8 inch. At each corner is a round screw imprint 1/2 inch in diameter. No screws are seen on the reverse face. This block is thick and weighs 14 pounds. Length 8 1/2, width 4, height 3 1/2 inches.

View of the marked face of the Santa Monica Block paving brick.
View of the marked face of the Santa Monica Block paving brick.

View of the smooth side of the Santa Monica Block paving brick.
View of the smooth side of the Santa Monica Block paving brick.

View of the smooth unmarked face of the Santa Monica Block paving brick with imprinted conveyor belt dashes.
View of the smooth unmarked face of the Santa Monica Block paving brick with imprinted conveyor belt dashes.

View of the wire-cut end of the Santa Monica Block paving brick.
View of the wire-cut end of the Santa Monica Block paving brick.

View of the interior clay body of the Santa Monica Block paving brick.
View of the interior clay body of the Santa Monica Block paving brick.

Los Angeles paving brick is another example of an early lugless wire-cut paving brick. It is pale to dark red and uniform in color. The form is excellent with straight edges and even surfaces. All of the edges are rounded except for the 4-inch edges, which are sharp. The sides and faces are bordered with slight beveled edges and display stronger repress lines on the sides rather than on the faces. The 4-inch long edge on the left side of the marked face usually has a slightly raised edge as if it was mashed. Faint transverse striations may be present on the sides and ends. Stack indentations may deform the sides a bit. A faint velour texture and angled grooves may be visible on the faces caused by the wire cutter. The marked face has two lines of lettering. The first line is LOS ANGELES in raised block letters in an arc that spans 7 7/8 inches and the letters stand 3/4 inch in height. The second line is P.B.Co. in raised block letters that span 3 7/8 inches and stand 3/4 inch, with round periods. At each corner is a round screw imprint 3/8 inch in diameter. On the reverse face are displayed round screw imprints of 3/8 inch diameter at each corner. These screw imprints may be difficult to see. The interior consists of one percent subangular white quartz and round black iron oxides, all less than 1/16 inch in diameter, in a very hard, compact, granular, vitrified red clay body. This brick was made using the stiff-mud process and repressed. Three different sizes have been noted: Length 8 3/8, width 4, height 2 1/4 inches; Length 8 3/8, width 4, height 2 3/8 inches; Length 8 1/2, width 3 3/4, height 3 inches.

Marked face of the Los Angeles P.B.Co red paver
View of the marked face of the Los Angeles paving brick.

View of the side of the Los Angeles paving brick.
View of the side of the Los Angeles paving brick.

View of the reversed face of the Los Angeles paving brick.
View of the reversed face of the Los Angeles paving brick. Wire-cut grooves trending NW-SE are visible.

Close-up view of the round screw on the corner of the Los Angeles paving brick.
Close-up view of the round screw on the
corner of the Los Angeles paving brick.

Close-up view of the interior clay body of the Los Angeles paving brick.
Close-up view of the interior clay
body of the Los Angeles paving brick.

LAPBCo paving block could be a later-made repress type when lugs were required on paving brick made after 1921. It is red and uniform in color. The form is poor and irregular with bulges and cracks. All of the edges are rounded except for the 4-inch edges at both ends, which are sharp. The sides and faces are bordered with slight beveled edges and display stronger repress lines on the sides rather than on the faces. Faint transverse striations may be present on the sides and ends. Stack indentations may deform the sides a bit. Patches or lumps of clay are attached to the surface. Hints of flashing are indicated by tiny yellow dots on the surface (some bricks may have yellow flashing on the sides). A faint velour texture and angled grooves that range from shallow to steep angles are visible on the faces caused by the wire cutter. The unmarked face displays longitudinal dashes, which are imprints from a conveyor belt. On the marked face is the company abbreviation LAPBCo in raised block letters that span 4 1/8 inches and stand 3/4 inch, except for the lower case "o" which is 1/2 inch in height. The company abbreviation is bordered on each side by transverse raised rectangular lugs, 2 3/8 inches in length and 1/4 inch wide. At each corner is a round screw imprint 1/2 inch in diameter. The interior consists of 13 percent subrounded red stone, 1/8 inch across; subangular white quartz, 1/16 inch across or less; subangular white granite or feldspar, ranging up to 1/2 inch across; and round black iron oxides, less than 1/16 inch in diameter, in a compact, granular, vitrified red clay body. This brick was made using the stiff-mud process and repressed. Length 8 1/4, width 4, height 2 5/8 inches.

View of the marked face of the LAPBCo paving brick.
View of the marked face of the LAPBCo paving brick. Donated by George L. Kennedy.

View of the side of the LAPBCo paving brick.
View of the side of the LAPBCo paving brick. Donated by George L. Kennedy.

View of the unmarked face of the LAPBCo paving brick.
View of the unmarked face of the LAPBCo paving brick. Donated by George L. Kennedy.

View of the interior clay body of the LAPBCo paving brick.
View of the interior clay body of the LAPBCo paving brick.

L.A.P.B.Co paving block is a later-made wire-cut type when lugs were required on paving brick after 1921. It is red and uniform in color. The form is good. All of the edges are rounded except for the 4-inch edges at both ends, which are sharp. No repress lines are present. Faint longitudinal striations may be present on the sides. Stack indentations may deform the sides a bit. The surface may be pitted. The ends show strong velour texture in the longitudinal direction with transverse grooves made by the wire-cutter (end-cut bricks). The unmarked face displays longitudinal dashes, which are imprints from a conveyor belt. On the marked face is the company abbreviation L.A.P.B.Co in recessed block letters that span 5 1/8 inches and stand 3/4 inch, except for the lower case "o" which is 1/2 inch in height. Two thicknesses of fonts were found on different bricks, 1/8 and 1/16 inch; the former being on the largest brick. Periods are round. The name can be off-centered and truncated at either ends indicating that the marking was applied during the extrusion process. The company abbreviation is bordered above and below by longitudinal series of raised square lugs, 1/2 by 1/2 inch and separated by 3/8 inch. The lugs range from 1/16 to 3/16 in height. There are about 9 or 10 square lugs in each row. The lugs may also be truncated at the ends, indicating that these were made during the extrusion process. Markings and lugs appear to have been applied by a roller on top of the extruding clay column. The interior consists of 5 percent subrounded red stone, 1/8 inch across; subangular glassy quartz, 1/16 inch across or less; and round black iron oxides, less than 1/16 inch in diameter, in a compact, granular, vitrified red clay body. This brick was made using the stiff-mud process and end cut. Three different heights for the marked brick was noted. Length 8 1/4, width 4 1/8, height 3 1/8 inches; Length 8 1/4, width 4 1/8, height 3 1/4 inches; Length 8 1/4, width 4 1/8, height 3 3/8 inches.

View of the marked face of the L.A.P.B.Co paving brick.
View of the marked face of the L.A.P.B.Co paving brick. Donated by Ron Rose.

View of a right truncated marked face of the L.A.P.B.Co paving brick.
View of a right truncated marked face of the L.A.P.B.Co paving brick.

View of the side of the L.A.P.B.Co paving brick.
View of the side of the L.A.P.B.Co paving brick.

View of the unmarked face of the L.A.P.B.Co paving brick showing dashes from a conveyor belt.
View of the unmarked face of the L.A.P.B.Co paving brick showing dashes from a conveyor belt.

View of the end of the L.A.P.B.Co paving brick showing the 
wire-cut marks and two truncated protruding lugs at the top.
View of the end of the L.A.P.B.Co paving brick showing the
wire-cut marks and two truncated protruding lugs at the top.

View of the interior clay body of the L.A.P.B.Co paving brick.<br />
View of the interior clay body of the L.A.P.B.Co paving brick.

A smaller and unmarked version of the L.A.P.B.Co paving block is shown next. It is similar to the previous paving block except in the following cases. The pair of longitudinal series of raised square lugs contain 10 lugs in each row due to slightly different sized lugs, measuring 3/8 by 1/2 inch and separated by 1/2 inch. The smaller size of the block measures in length 8 1/8, width 4 1/8, height 2 1/2 inches.

View of the face of the L.A.P.B.Co paving brick showing lugs.
View of the face of the L.A.P.B.Co paving brick showing lugs. Donated by Brian F. Smith & Associates, Archaeologists.

View of the end of the L.A.P.B.Co paving brick showing the 
wire-cut marks and two truncated protruding lugs at the top.
View of the end of the L.A.P.B.Co paving brick showing the
wire-cut marks and two truncated protruding lugs at the top.
Donated by Brian F. Smith & Associates, Archaeologists.

Red Ruffled Face Brick

Red ruffled face brick could have been made at either the Santa Monica or Los Angeles plant, the latter using the same clay from Santa Monica. This is part of the Old Rose series of face brick. The one displayed below is orange red and uniform in color, but it can range from pink to dark red. The form is excellent with straight edges and even surfaces. All of the edges are sharp except for the short edges, which are rounded. Faint transverse striations may be present on the sides and ends. One side and one or two ends may have a ruffled texture that trends longitudinally. Subrounded to subangular white quartz, less than 1/8 inch across, is visible on the surface and appears to be sprinkled on the surface. Faces display a faint velour texture and curving angled grooves on a slightly wavy surface caused by the wire cutter. The marked side contains the words LA PRESSED BRICK CO in recessed block letters that span 5 3/4 inches and stand 3/8 inch inside a plate outline that is 1/2 inch in width. The mark may be off-centered in either directions. In the center of the name is a round screw imprint 1/4 inch in diameter. The interior consists of 10 percent subrounded glassy quartz, 1/16 inch across; subangular white granite or feldspar, 1/8 inch across; round red clay, 1/8 inch across, and tiny round black iron oxides, 1/16 inch across or less, in a fine red sandy clay body. This brick was made using the stiff-mud process. Length 8 1/4, width 3 7/8, height 2 3/8 inches.

View of the marked smooth side of the red ruffled face brick.
View of the marked smooth side of the red ruffled face brick.

View of the marked smooth side of the red ruffled face brick.
View of the side of the red ruffled face brick.

View of the end of the red ruffled face brick.
View of the end of the red ruffled face brick.

View of the wire-cut face of the red ruffled face brick.
View of the wire-cut face of the red ruffled face brick.

Close-up view of the cut surface showing white quartz and wire-cut grooves.
Close-up view of the cut surface showing white quartz and wire-cut grooves.

Hollow Partition Tile

Orange-red hollow partition tile were made at the Santa Monica yard. The external surface is smooth and has longitudinal 1/2 inch wide grooves and 1/4 inch wide ridges set between 1-inch margins. The larger side has 7 grooves and 6 ridges. The smaller side has 5 grooves and 4 ridges. The tile has three partitions with 1-inch thick walls. Two rectangular partitions, 4 by 2 1/2 inches, are separated by a narrow partition, 1/4 by 3 1/2 inches. The ends display a velour texture made by the wire-cutter. The name is stamped on one of the margins of one the large sides in recessed block letters as "LAPBCo HEATH UT PAT." The letters stand 6/16 inch in height, except some are slightly shorter, and they span the whole length of the tile. The name was applied by a roller as the unit was being extruded so there is usually truncation of the name at each end of the cut. The hollow tile was patented by the Heath Unit Tile Company and a license was purchased about 1920 by the Los Angeles Pressed Brick Company that allowed its manufacture. Length 11 1/2, width 8 1/8, height 5 5/8 inches.

View of the marked side of the Heath hollow partition tile.
View of the marked side of the Heath hollow partition tile. Donated by Neal.

View of the end of the Heath hollow partition tile showing three partitions.
View of the end of the Heath hollow partition tile showing three partitions. Donated by Neal.

References

Adds To City's Brick Expenses, Los Angeles Herald, February 11, 1905.

Boalich, E.S., Castello, W.O., Hugguenin, Emile, Logan, C.A., and Tucker, W. Burling, The Clay Industry In California, California State Mining Bureau Preliminary Report No. 7, 1920.

Brick, v. 21, no. 3, 1904, p. 121.

Brick, v. 21, no. 4, 1904, p. 135.

Brick, v. 22, no. 3, 1905, p. 201.

Brick, v. 23, no. 2, 1905, p. 54.

Brick, v. 30, no. 5, 1909, p. 246.

Brick, v. 31, no. 5, 1909, p. 198.

Brick, v. 31, no. 6, 1909, p. 241.

Brick, v. 32, no. 1, 1910, p. 77.

Brick, v. 32, no. 3, 1910, p. 195.

Brick Kiln Causes Destruction of Plant, San Francisco Call, August 17, 1911.

Bureau of Standards, Simplified Practice Recommendation No. 1 Paving Bricks, U.S. Department of Commerce, August 1, 1922.

Cannot Keep Up With Paving Brick Orders, Los Angeles Herald, February 13, 1908.

Clay Record, v. 35, no. 9, November 1909, p. 25.

Clay Worker, v. 56, no. 3, September 1911, p. 282.

Clay Worker, v. 56, no. 6, December 1911, p. 638.

Clay Worker, v. 60, no. 1, July 1913, p. 43.

Clay Worker, v. 60, no. 2, August 1913, p. 167.

Clay Worker, v. 60, no. 6, December 1913, p. 642.

Frost Installing New Equipment, Brick and Clay Record, v. 62, no. 1, 1923, p. 54.

Good Brick For Good Roads, Architect and Engineer, v. 8, no. 2, March 1907, p. 98.

Kennedy, George L., personal and written communications, 2015.

Los Angeles Herald, September 3, 1905.

Los Angeles Herald, July 10, 1920.

Los Angeles Pressed Brick at San Diego Exposition, Brick and Clay Record, v. 46, no. 6, 1915, p. 558.

Los Angeles Pressed Brick Company, Architect and Engineer, v. 14, no. 3, October 1908, p. 88.

Merrill, F.J.H., Los Angeles County, Orange County, Riverside County, California State Mining Bureau 15th Report of the State Mineralogist, part 4, 1917, p. 461-589.

Neal, personal communications, 2015.

Pacific Coast Architect, v. 8, no. 3, September 1914.

Pacific Coast Architect, v. 8, no. 4, October 1914, p. 161.

Pacific Coast Architect, v. 9, no. 2, February 1915.

Pacific Coast Architect, v. 9, no. 3, March 1915.

Pacific Coast Architect, v. 27, no. 2, February 1925, p. 10.

Paving Brick on the Coast, Brick, v. 30, no. 5, May 1909, p. 242-244.

Sanborn Map Company, Santa Monica, Cal., April 1909.

Santa Monica City Directory, 1915.

Santa Monica City Directory, 1926.

Santa Monica City Directory, 1927.

Copyright 2015 Dan Mosier

Contact Dan Mosier at danmosier@earthlink.net.