California brick
CALIFORNIA BRICKS


Los Angeles Pressed Brick Company, Los Angeles yards

company letterhead
Letterhead donated by Chris and Sandra Ingram

History


Charles H. Frost
The colorful face bricks seen on most of the major buildings in the Los Angeles area were produced by the brick company established and managed by Charles Henry Frost, born on June 9, 1844, in Ithaca, New York. He attended public and private schools in Ithaca, and Baker's High School in Quincy, Illinois. In 1862, he went into the commissary department of the government in Chicago. In 1864, he was transferred to the quartermaster's department at Cincinnati, Ohio, and was promoted to cashier. In 1866, he worked for the Home Mutual Life Insurance Company of Cincinnati. In 1868, he transferred to the United States Life Insurance Company of New York and worked as a manager for the Western department. In 1869, he married Helen I. Sherman at Davenport, Iowa, and they had two children, Lida E. and Howard Frost. In 1877, he organized a pressed brick company in Chicago, called the C.H. Frost and Company. Frost did not know a thing about making bricks at the time he started this firm, but his innovative mind saw a different and more efficient way to make bricks by dry pressing them with a minimal amount of water. That turned out to be a very successful operation.

In 1886, Charles Frost moved his family to Pasadena, California, where he was drawn to opportunities for investment in Los Angeles while improving his health. He became a member of the Jonathan Club and the Masons. He was the owner of an olive grove on 115 acres near El Toro in Orange County, and helped to organize the American Olive Company.

In 1887, Frost re-entered the brick business when he organized the Los Angeles Pressed Brick and Terra Cotta Company. The officers of the company were Charles H. Frost, president; W.L. Carter, vice-president; and A.H. Trotter, secretary. The directors over the years were prominent citizens of Los Angeles, including H.E. Huntington, G. Kerckhoff, I.N. Van Nuys, William H. Allen, J.E. Fishburn, J.M. Elliott, W.C. Patterson, West Hughes, W.D. Woolwine, J. Ross Clark, O.T. Johnson, J.M.C. Marble, Dan Murphy, and Howard Frost. Charles Frost was the president and general manager of the company until his son Howard succeeded him in January 1913. In 1894, terra cotta was dropped from the name of the company when they ceased terra cotta production. In 1903, the company incorporated under the name of the Los Angeles Pressed Brick Company, with a capital stock of $250,000. The company office was located at 204 South Spring Street until 1896, when it was moved to 119 South Broadway. In 1900, the office was moved to the Frost Building at 145 Broadway in Los Angeles. The entire sixth floor of the Frost Building was where the company had its large products showroom.

Los Angeles Pressed Brick Co. ad
Los Angeles Pressed Brick Company advertisement showing their
original plant on Cleveland and College streets in Los Angeles.

The original brickyard of the Los Angeles Pressed Brick Company was located on three acres of land on Cleveland and College streets in Los Angeles. The yard employed from 20 to 50 workers. L.F. Miller was the plant superintendent in 1896. This plant had five down-draft kilns, fired with oil. Clay was obtained from the property and supplemented with clay shipped from Carbondale, Amador County, Corona, Riverside County, and elsewhere. They manufactured plain, molded, and ornamental pressed bricks, enameled brick, architectural terra cotta, fire-proof hollow tile, roofing tile, mantel and hearth tile, and fire-clay goods. Whittaker presses were used. The pressed brick was started in 1887, and over the years, nearly all textures and colors were created at this plant. The stiff-mud face bricks, introduced in December 1909, were given names as "Tan Rug," "Tan Ruffle," "Old Rose," "Orogrande," "Red Rug," "Orogrande Gray," and "Tan Smooth." The pressed bricks were given names as "Cream," "Old Gold," "Gray," "Buff," "Red Buff," and "Red." Clay for the Orogrande bricks came from Oro Grande near Victorville. In 1888, the plant began making architectural terra cotta and hollow-tile. In 1894, due to market decline, they stopped making terra cotta at this plant.
Vermont Square Library
In 1898, they began making firebricks until the Alberhill plant was built in 1916. In 1904, roofing tile and mantel and hearth tile were added to the product line. In 1907, enameled brick and tile, available in soft tones, and terra cotta products were made. The enameled bricks were named "Ivory Enamel" and "White Enamel," and these were available in stretcher, quoin, or bullnose shapes. The Ivory Enamel was used in the Vermont Square Library in Los Angeles, shown in the picture to the right. In 1909, the silver gray glazed brick was produced. In December 1909, the ruffled brick was introduced in variety of colors, also known in the industry as tapestry brick. In 1915, they obtained a license from the Hocking Valley Products Company of Logan, Ohio, which allowed them to produce "Rug" textured bricks in California.

In 1916, the old plant on Cleveland Street was closed and a new plant was built at 952 Date Street (now Bauchet St.) and Alhambra Avenue, in the heart of the commercial district of Los Angeles, where the prison currently stands in the Union Terminal District. That was the year that Charles Frost passed away and his son Howard, took total control of the company. Like his father, Howard was an efficiency expert and was always looking for ways to cut cost without sacrificing quality. He advertised his products religiously in magazines, newspapers, and billboards and, as a result, his brick company "enjoyed a remarkable success" according to the Brick and Clay Record. The first thing he wanted was to build a modern plant with the latest efficient equipment and conveyors. The newer and larger plant was located on 13 acres with three railroad switches to the yard. Clays were shipped to the plant from Corona, Riverside County, and starting in 1922 from San Diego. They owned a total of 1,800 acres of clay properties in Riverside, San Diego, Orange, San Bernardino, and Kern counties. The plant used 14 varieties of clays in its products, all of which required the mixing of at least two or three different clays.

Los Angeles Pressed Brick Co. brickyard
Entrance to the Los Angeles Pressed Brick Company Plant No. 1 on Date Street, Los Angeles. From Brick and Clay Record, 1920.

The plant was equipped with 10 dry pans, American brick augers and presses, a Union brick machine with a 6,000 brick per hour capacity, a four-mold Boyd dry-press machine, a four-mold Fernholtz dry-press machine, both capable of making 19,000 bricks per nine hours. There was a steam-power plant containing a 1000-h.p. boiler capacity, two Corliss engines of 250 and 450 h.p., two compressors, and two pumps. They were arranged in two units, one for tile and one for brick. The bricks were dried with waste heat provided by the muffle kilns. Steam heat was used for the tiles.

Los Angeles Pressed Brick Co. kilns

There were three dryers equipped with hydrodyks and anemometers. One dryer was a 16-tunnel, single-track, waste-heat unit, 100 feet long, with a capacity for 240 cars. The second dryer was a 6-tunnel, double-track, waste-heat unit, 100 feet long, with a capacity of 180 cars. The third dryer was a 16-tunnel, single-track steam unit, 80 feet long, with a capacity of 192 cars. The wares were burned in 28 oil- or gas-burning kilns, including 14 round down-draft kilns of 26 to 38 feet diameter, six 40- by 6-foot rectangular muffle kilns and two 26- by 6-foot rectangular muffle kilns for enameled brick, three 25-foot and one 15-foot diameter muffle kilns for terra cotta, and two 70- by 16-foot rectangular down-draft kilns. In 1923, three periodic kilns were replaced by two 325-foot long tunnel kilns. Pyrometers were used to control the temperatures in the kilns.

In the machine room, there were steel-lined bins of 30 tons capacity, which deposited clay into three poidometers, which fed ground clay uniformily into the pug mills, at the same time adding the correct quantity of water. Three auger machines, three pug mills, one Union brick machine and cutters were used in the machine room. There were also two dry-press machines supplied with raw material by automatic mixers. In nine hours, 50,000 face bricks were handled by only three hackers. The face bricks were then sent to the humidity-controlled dryers. The rough texture face brick were set 36 to 40 courses high in the kilns. The average burning temperature was equivalent to cone 10 (2,426 degrees F), indicating the high refractory quality of the clay. The bricks were burned for 6.25 days. The dry-press bricks were taken directly to the kiln from the press, set 32 courses high and burned to a maximum temperature of cone ten. The burn was completed in 5.5 days.

Los Angeles Pressed Brick Co. brickyard
In 1918, Gustaf Larson, general superintendent of the Los Angeles plant, invented a new brick clay that was light enough to float in water called Larsite, which was used in ships. In 1924, they developed a green glaze for their roofing tile. That year, the company also invented an automatic roofing-tile machine that increased production over 20 percent over the handmade method and was able to reduce the number of workers from 22 to 5 in the roofing-tile department. In addition, they offered mortar joints in seven colors to match the color of their bricks and tiles.

Over 300 employees worked at the plant when it was operating full-time. In 1920, the plant made 25,000 dry-pressed, face, and enamel bricks per day, handmade shapes, 30 tons of roofing tile per day, 50 tons of hollow tile per day, and 125 tons of architectural terra cotta per month. The products were shipped to distant points by rail to as far north as British Columbia, as far south as Mexico, and as far east as Salt Lake City. Locally, the bricks were shipped using three-ton motor trucks. Most of the significant buildings in the Los Angeles region were constructed of the products from this company, such as the Biltmore Hotel, Marsh-Strong Building, UCLA Royce Hall and Powell Library, USC Administration and Student Union buildings, Taft Building, Bank of Italy, Van Nuys Building, and the Fine Arts Building.

Los Angeles Pressed Brick Co. truck
Because it is difficult at this stage to distinguish the products from the first two Los Angeles brick plants, they are combined here. The Los Angeles Pressed Brick Company operated three additional plants located in Santa Monica, Alberhill, and Richmond, California, which are treated separately on these pages. These other plants helped to supplement the products of the main Los Angeles plant. For instance, red-pressed face, red rug, and red-ruffle bricks were made at the Richmond plant, red paving bricks and tiles were made at the Santa Monica plant, and firebricks were made at the Alberhill plant.

On November 30, 1924, the Date Street brick plant was completely destroyed by fire with damage estimated at $500,000. The company rebuilt the plant, doubling the roofing tile drier capacity along with other major improvements. Pressed brick production did not stop at the yard. In 60 days, operation started again in the terra cotta department. The new three-story building was completed by March 1925. C.C. Cady, assistant general superintendent of the plant, announced that the new plant had a 25 percent increase in production efficiency with improved overhead transportation system and lighting. The new steel and concrete structures housed the tunnel kilns and dryers and other mechanical departments, all costing $175,000.

In 1926, Howard Frost decided to retire and this caused a large block of his holdings to be transferred to the Gladding, McBean & Company, which took control of the Los Angeles Pressed Brick Company. Frost retained a large number of shares and remained a director for four more years. The offices of the two companies were combined on February 22, on the top floor of the Pacific Finance Building in Los Angeles. Atholl McBean became the new president, replacing Howard Frost, and F.B. Ortman the vice-president and general manager, replacing Richard D. Hatton. Gladding, McBean & Company allowed the Los Angeles Pressed Brick Company to continue to operate independently, except for the terra cotta sales, which Gladding, McBean & Company wanted to control. The total gross sales of the two companies were estimated to range between $6,000,000 and $7,000,000 annually. Gus Larson remained the plant manager of the company plants. For the continuation of the history of this plant, see Gladding, McBean & Company, Los Angeles Pressed Brick Plant.

LAPBCo Brick

Face Brick

Los Angeles Pressed Brick Co. face brick with frog
The first face bricks made by the Los Angeles Pressed Brick Company were marked on the face of the brick.

Los Angeles Pressed Brick Co. side print face brick
Later face bricks made by the Los Angeles Pressed Brick Company were marked on the back side of the brick.
Photo courtesy of E. James Freedner.

Los Angeles Pressed Brick Co. Old Rose
View of the Los Angeles Pressed Brick Company Old Rose Ruffled No. 33 face brick at the Clark Library, Los Angeles.

Los Angeles Pressed Brick Co. Belmont
View of the Los Angeles Pressed Brick Company Belmont Rug No. 52 face brick at the Masonic Temple, Los Angeles.

Los Angeles Pressed Brick Co. Oro Grande Ruffled Brick
View of the Los Angeles Pressed Brick Company Oro Grande Ruffled face brick at 15 Gardner, Hollywood.


Face brick came in at least 48 varieties of colors and textures. The colors included white, gray, tan, gold, cream, orange, pink, red, burgundy, and brown. The colors may be uniform on some while mottled on others, all by design. Colored brick patterns were given special names, such as "Old Rose" for variegated red bricks laid in Flemish bond, or "Oro Grande" for variegated tan bricks laid in Dutch or English cross bond, or "Belmont" for variegated red and tan bricks laid in Dutch or English cross bond. Interestingly, the Belmont Rug pattern came out in 1924 and was named for its first use in the Belmont High School in Los Angeles, though the beautiful brick pattern has since been covered by stucco.

Three textures were available for the face brick: smooth (starting 1887), rug (starting 1915), and ruffled (starting 1909) face. The smooth sided brick was usually free of scratches or pits, indicating the high quality of the pressed brick. Minor orange flashing is present on some with smooth sides. The extruded wire-cut brick shows transverse striations on the sides and angled or curved grooves on the faces. These extrusion and cut marks are usually difficult to see in the ones that have been repressed.

The rug or ruffled textures were scratched on one side and one or both ends of the brick. The rug texture has 30 to 35 deep transverse grooves on the side and 15 or 16 deep transverse grooves on the ends of the brick. The grooves are mostly 1/4 inch apart, with margins of 3/8 inch from the ends. The ruffled texture, also known as bark texture, has very rough and scaly sides and ends.

The rectangular, beveled sided frog was pressed into one of the faces of the earlier bricks when the company was using only pressing machines. Three different sizes of frogs were measured, the largest was 6 inches long, 2 inches wide, and 1/4 inch deep, with block letters of "LAPBCo" recessed, spanning 5 3/8 inches in length and 1 1/16 inches in height; the lower case "o" was 5/8 inch high. The middle sized frog was 4 5/8 inches long, 1 inch wide, and 1/32 inch deep, with block letters of "LAPBCo" recessed, spanning 4 inches in length and 3/4 inch in height; the lower case "o" was 3/8 inch high. The smallest frog was 3 5/8 inches long, 3/4 inch high, and 1/32 inch deep, with block letters of "L.A.P.B.Co." recessed, spanning 3 3/8 inches in length and 1/2 inch in height; the lower case "o" was 1/4" inch high. Of course, there are variations of sizes between these three examples. On later bricks, the mark was moved to the back side of the brick when a continuous type of extruding machine was used. The mark was recessed in block letters spelling out the company name "LA PRESSED BRICK CO", spanning 6 inches and 3/8 inch high. The mark was not always centered, but floated about on the side and may even be truncated. A 1922 building at 73-85 Market Street in Venice contains both pressed (with large letters in large frog) and wire-cut face (with continuous side print) bricks, indicating that both styles of markings were being used simultaneously.

The internal clay body has a tan, medium granular texture with subangular white quartz up to 1/4 inch across constituting about 15 percent of the clay body. Tiny black iron spots less than 1/8 inch across represent about two percent of the clay body. In the Old Gold face brick, these black iron spots can get up to 1/2 inch across, many with blistered centers, and range up to 20 percent.

The methods used were pressed or extruded stiff-mud process, wire-cut, and repressed. Face bricks were available in a wide range of sizes: length 7 3/4 - 8 5/8, width 3 3/4 - 4 1/2, height 2 1/8 - 2 3/8 inches. Examples of the smooth, rug, and ruffled face bricks are shown below.

Smooth Face Brick

Los Angeles Pressed Brick Co. smooth gray face brick
View of the side of a Los Angeles Pressed Brick Company smooth gray face brick.

Los Angeles Pressed Brick Co. smooth tan face brick
View of the side of a Los Angeles Pressed Brick Company smooth tan face brick.

Los Angeles Pressed Brick Co. smooth gold face brick
View of the side of a Los Angeles Pressed Brick Company smooth Old Gold face brick.

Los Angeles Pressed Brick Co. smooth dark gold face brick
View of the side of a Los Angeles Pressed Brick Company smooth dark Old Gold face brick.

Los Angeles Pressed Brick Co. smooth orange face brick
View of the side of a Los Angeles Pressed Brick Company smooth orange face brick.

Los Angeles Pressed Brick Co. dark orange brick
View of the side of a Los Angeles Pressed Brick Company smooth dark orange face brick.

Los Angeles Pressed Brick Co. smooth red face brick
View of the side of a Los Angeles Pressed Brick Company smooth red face brick.

Los Angeles Pressed Brick Co. smooth burgundy face brick
View of the side of a Los Angeles Pressed Brick Company smooth burgundy face brick.

Rug Face Brick

Los Angeles Pressed Brick Co. light gray rug face brick
View of the side of a Los Angeles Pressed Brick Company light gray rug face brick.

Los Angeles Pressed Brick Co. gray rug face brick
View of the side of a Los Angeles Pressed Brick Company gray rug face brick.

Los Angeles Pressed Brick Co. light tan rug face brick
View of the side of a Los Angeles Pressed Brick Company light tan rug face brick.

Los Angeles Pressed Brick Co. tan rug face brick
View of the side of a Los Angeles Pressed Brick Company tan rug face brick.

Los Angeles Pressed Brick Co. dark tan rug face brick
View of the side of a Los Angeles Pressed Brick Company dark tan rug face brick.

Los Angeles Pressed Brick Co. gold rug face brick
View of the side of a Los Angeles Pressed Brick Company Old Gold rug face brick.

Los Angeles Pressed Brick Co. buff rose rug face brick
View of the side of a Los Angeles Pressed Brick Company Red Buff rug face brick.

Los Angeles Pressed Brick Co. rose rug face brick
View of the side of a Los Angeles Pressed Brick Company Old Rose rug face brick.

Los Angeles Pressed Brick Co. dark rose rug face brick
View of the side of a Los Angeles Pressed Brick Company dark Old Rose rug face brick.

Los Angeles Pressed Brick Co. orange rug face brick
View of the side of a Los Angeles Pressed Brick Company orange rug face brick.

Los Angeles Pressed Brick Co. red rug face brick
View of the side of a Los Angeles Pressed Brick Company red rug face brick.

Los Angeles Pressed Brick Co. light burgundy rug face brick
View of the side of a Los Angeles Pressed Brick Company burgundy rug face brick.

Los Angeles Pressed Brick Co. purple rug face brick
View of the side of a Los Angeles Pressed Brick Company purple rug face brick.

Ruffled Face Brick

Los Angeles Pressed Brick Co. gray ruffled face brick
View of the side of a Los Angeles Pressed Brick Company gray ruffled face brick.

Los Angeles Pressed Brick Co. gray spotted ruffled face brick
View of the side of a Los Angeles Pressed Brick Company gray spotted ruffled face brick.

Los Angeles Pressed Brick Co. dark gray spotted ruffled face brick
View of the side of a Los Angeles Pressed Brick Company dark gray spotted ruffled face brick.

Los Angeles Pressed Brick Co. light tan ruffled face brick
View of the side of a Los Angeles Pressed Brick Company light tan ruffled face brick.

Los Angeles Pressed Brick Co. dark tan ruffled face brick
View of the side of a Los Angeles Pressed Brick Company dark tan ruffled face brick.

Los Angeles Pressed Brick Co. tan spotted ruffled face brick
View of the side of a Los Angeles Pressed Brick Company tan spotted ruffled face brick.

Los Angeles Pressed Brick Co. gold ruffled face brick
View of the side of a Los Angeles Pressed Brick Company Old Gold ruffled face brick.

Los Angeles Pressed Brick Co. dark gold ruffled face brick
View of the side of a Los Angeles Pressed Brick Company dark Old Gold ruffled face brick.

Los Angeles Pressed Brick Co. orange ruffled face brick
View of the side of a Los Angeles Pressed Brick Company orange ruffled face brick.

Los Angeles Pressed Brick Co. dark orange ruffled face brick
View of the side of a Los Angeles Pressed Brick Company dark orange ruffled face brick.

Los Angeles Pressed Brick Co. buff rose ruffled face brick
View of the side of a Los Angeles Pressed Brick Company Red Buff ruffled face brick.

Los Angeles Pressed Brick Co. rose ruffled face brick
View of the side of a Los Angeles Pressed Brick Company Old Rose ruffled face brick.

Los Angeles Pressed Brick Co. red ruffled face brick
View of the side of a Los Angeles Pressed Brick Company red ruffled face brick.

Enameled Face Brick


Enameled face brick came in many colors and patterns starting in 1907. A small sampling of enameled bricks are shown below. The company used such adjectives as "opaque", "transparent", and "matte" to describe their glazed finish bricks. Some of the colors and patterns were designed to match the granite or marble blocks or polychrome terra cotta used in the buildings. Initially, they started with two main colors: white and ivory or cream. But later other colors were added, such as brown, blue, and green. The enamel was applied to one side and one or both ends of the brick. Smooth face brick was used, which is described above.

Los Angeles Pressed Brick Co. white enameled brick
View of the side of a Los Angeles Pressed Brick Company white transparent enameled face brick.

Los Angeles Pressed Brick Co. cream matte enameled brick
View of the side of a Los Angeles Pressed Brick Company ivory matte enameled face brick.

Los Angeles Pressed Brick Co. black spotted enameled brick
View of the side of a Los Angeles Pressed Brick Company black spotted enameled face brick.

Los Angeles Pressed Brick Co. gray spotted enameled brick
View of the side of a Los Angeles Pressed Brick Company gray (granite) enameled face brick.

Los Angeles Pressed Brick Co. gray large spotted enameled brick
View of the side of a Los Angeles Pressed Brick Company gray speckled enameled face brick.

Los Angeles Pressed Brick Co. white speckled enameled brick
View of the side of a Los Angeles Pressed Brick Company white speckled enameled face brick.

Los Angeles Pressed Brick Co. brown speckled enameled brick
View of the side of a Los Angeles Pressed Brick Company brown speckled eggshell enameled face brick.

Los Angeles Pressed Brick Co. green matte enameled brick
View of the side of a Los Angeles Pressed Brick Company green marble matte enameled face brick. Collection of E. James Freedner.

Los Angeles Pressed Brick Co. gold enameled brick
View of the side of a Los Angeles Pressed Brick Company gold enameled face brick.

All of the bricks shown above are from the collection or photo collection of Dan Mosier unless otherwise noted.


References

Architect and Engineer, December 1909, p. 108-109.

Architect and Engineer, November 1924, p. 20.

Boalich, E.S., Castello, W.O., Hugguenin, Emile, Logan, C.A., and Tucker, W. Burling, The Clay Industry In California, California State Mining Bureau Preliminary Report No. 7, 1920.

Brick, v. 7, no. 6, 1897, p. 236-237.

Brick, v. 22, no. 7, 1903, p. 33.

Brick, v. 22, no. 12, 1903, p. 33.

Brick, v. 31, no. 12, 1909, p. 241.

Brick and Clay Record, v. 42, no. 6, 1913, p. 349.

Brick and Clay Record, v. 46, no. 6, 1915, p. 558.

Brick and Clay Record, v. 52, no. 10, 1918, p. 870-871.

Brick and Clay Record, v. 53, no. 12, 1918, p. 963.

Brick and Clay Record, v. 57, no. 11, 1920, p. 916-918.

Brick and Clay Record, v. 60, no. 8, 1922, p. 632.

Brick and Clay Record, v. 62, no. 11, 1923, p. 939-975.

Brick and Clay Record, v. 65, no. 6, 1924, p. 406.

Brick and Clay Record, v. 65, no. 8, 1924, p. 554.

Brick and Clay Record, v. 65, no. 12, 1924, p. 852.

Brick and Clay Record, v. 66, no. 4, 1925, p. 300.

Brick and Clay Record, v. 66, no. 13, 1925, p. 1002.

Brick and Clay Record, v. 67, no. 5, 1925, p. 350.

Brick and Clay Record, v. 68, no. 4, 1926, p. 283.

Brick and Clay Record, v. 76, no. 11, 1930, p. 718.

Brick and Clay Record, v. 78, no. 3, 1931, p. 171.

Dietrich, Waldemar Fenn, The Clay Resources and the Ceramic Industry of California, California State Mining Bureau Bulletin 99, 1928.

Freedner, Eric James, written communication about LAPBCo bricks and finding the Date Street plant location, 2009.

Frost, Charles H., Reminiscences of a Brick Man, Architect and Engineer, November 1913, p. 95-97.

Gladding, McBean & Co., Shapes of Clay, v. 1, no. 2, San Francisco, Los Angeles, June 1925.

Gladding, McBean & Co. and Los Angeles Pressed Brick Company, Face Brick, catalog, San Francisco, Los Angeles, 1927.

Irvine, Leigh H., A History of the New California, Its Resources and People, v. 1. New York and Chicago: The Lewis Publishing Co., 1903.

Los Angeles City Directories, 1887-1916.

Los Angeles Pressed Brick Company, Catalogue; Containing Useful Information in Connection with the Use of Fire Clay Brick, Los Angeles, California, 4th Series, no date.

McGroarty, John S., Los Angeles From the Mountains to the Sea, v. 3, The American Historical Society, Chicago and New York, 1921.

Press Reference Library, Notables of the West, v. 2, Western Edition. International News Service, New York, 1915.

Ries, Heinrich, and Leighton, Henry, History of the Clay-Working Industry in the United States, John Wiley and Sons, and Chapman and Hall, Ltd., New York and London, first edition, 1909.

Copyright 2009 Dan Mosier

Contact Dan Mosier at danmosier@earthlink.net.