California brick
CALIFORNIA BRICKS


Los Angeles Brick Company Plant No. 4, Alberhill

Los Angeles Brick and Clay Products Company, Alberhill

Los Angeles Brick Company advertisement. Los Angeles City Directory, 1924.
Los Angeles Brick Company advertisement. Los Angeles City Directory, 1924.

History


In January 1900, several Los Angeles capitalists formed a new brick trust to control the brick trade in Los Angeles, California. They negotiated with the owners of ten brickyards in Los Angeles for the purchase of their property. They were successful in purchasing five of the brickyard properties. These included two brickyards owned by Goss and Hubbard, who operated under the name of City Brick Company at Chavez Ravine and at Mission Road; the yard of Edward Simons in Chavez Ravine; the yard of Reuben G. Simons on East Seventh Street; and the yard of Thomas Joyce in Chavez Ravine. The other five brickyard owners refused to join the brick trust. It was stipulated by the brick trust that the former owners must keep out of the brick business in that neighborhood unless hired by the new corporation.

On January 10, 1900, a newspaper reported that the Los Angeles Brick Company was incorporated with a capital stock of $500,000, divided into 5,000 shares, of which amount $20,000 had been subscribed. The directors were W. F. Botsford, T. E. Newlin, M. H. Newmark, George W. Beck, M. S. Hellman, and Samuel M. Newmark, all of Los Angeles. Other stockholders were Phineas Newmark, J. F. Sartori, Henderson Hayward, and A. H. Conger. Initial officers were W. F. Botsford as president, M. H. Newmark as vice-president, and T. E. Newlin as secretary and manager. The company office was located at 125 West Second Street in Los Angeles and at the Security Building at 510 South Spring Street in Los Angeles, before it was later moved to its yard on Mission Road in Los Angeles.

View of the Los Angeles Brick Company Plant No. 4, Alberhill, Riverside County.
View of the Los Angeles Brick Company Plant No. 4, Alberhill, Riverside County. From Dietrich, 1928.

This article will focus on the Los Angeles Brick Company Plant No. 4. This yard of 720 acres was located at Alberhill in Riverside County, California. The property was purchased about June 1921 from the California Clay Manufacturing Company by the Los Angeles Brick Company, which officers at the time were M. H. Newmark as president, E. W. Murphy as vice-president, and L. S. Collins as general manager. The first unit for making face brick was completed in May 1925. Units for making firebrick and other clay products soon followed from 1926 onward.

The clay mined was in the lower part of the Paleocene age Silverado Formation. Three main pits exposed a variety of clay lenses ranging from 6 to 30 feet in thickness and comprising about 114 feet in total thickness. These included pink mottled clay for face brick, firebrick, tile, and pottery; red clay for face brick and tile; bone clay for firebrick; and plastic pink and yellow clay for firebrick and pottery. Shovels were used to remove the overburden of disintegrated granitic material that ranged from 50 to 70 feet in thickness. Mining and loading were done by the Bueyrus diesel loader. Trucks were used to haul the clay to the plant, about a half mile north of the pits. In 1926, mines employed 20 workers and, in 1945, seven workers were shipping 300 tons per day to the plant.

The clay was ground in a Telsmith gyratory crusher and 7 American 9-foot dry pans, screened with one-quarter, 18-mesh screens, and elevated to separate steel bins for each variety of clay. The material was mixed in a double pug-mill. Barium carbonate was added to reduce efflorescences. Disc feeders were used to feed an auger stiff-mud brick machine, which was equipped with an automatic cutter. Some bricks were repressed. Firebricks were dry pressed. Some of the Crescent brand firebricks were made by the auger machine. The bricks were marked in the presses with the company abbreviations "LABCO," "LABco," or "LABCPCo," with or without periods, in recessed block letters, along with the brand name and sometimes the plant location "ALBERHILL." Face brick were imprinted with only the company abbreviations and location. Both "LABCO" and "LABco" were stamped on bricks from 1925 to 1936. A LABCo ALBERHILL logo, with the large "A" sharing both words, was found on the H-I-ALUMINA firebrick, indicating the introduction of the logo just prior to 1936. From 1936 onward, with the change in the company name, bricks were stamped with the LABCPCo ALBERHILL logo.

View of the stamp roller used to mark stiff-mud bricks. Photo courtesy of Josh Higgins.
View of the "LABCPCO" stamp roller used to mark stiff-mud bricks. Photo courtesy of Josh Higgins.

View of the stamp roller used to mark stiff-mud bricks. Photo courtesy of Josh Higgins.
View of the "ALBERHILL" stamp roller used to mark stiff-mud bricks. Photo courtesy of Josh Higgins.

The plant was also equipped with two rough tile machines, one hollow tile and brick machine, and a steam sewer pipe press, which was installed in 1930. The bricks were dried in a 32-tunnel waste heat drier in 1926, and this was increased to a 64-tunnel drier by 1945. The wares required 48 hours of drying. In 1926, firing was done in four 32-foot and eight 34-foot round down-draft kilns fired with air-atomized oil. By 1945, this was increased to 18 round down-draft kilns and one gas-fired Harrup tunnel kiln. Buff and cream face brick and all firebrick were fired to cone 11 (2417 degrees F) to cone 13 (2462 degrees F). The bricks were burned for 4 to 6 days and 4 days or more were allowed for cooling. In 1945, the total capacity was 110,000 brick per day.

View of the brick cart and brick presses at the Los Angeles Brick Company Plant No. 4.
View of the brick cart and brick presses at the Los
Angeles Brick Company Plant No. 4. From Dietrich, 1928.

The plant employed 125 workers in 1926. This was increased to 180 before the war. In 1945, 80 workers were employed. In 1926, Gustave Larsen was the manager of operations and Harvey Gardner was plant superintendent. In 1945, Arthur Bodien was plant superintendent.

Plant No. 4 supplied clay products for Southern California and other states in the Southwestern United States from 1925 to about 1963. Trucks and trains were used to haul the bricks to job sites or sales yards. This plant produced firebrick, face brick, hollow tile, floor tile, sewer pipe, and roofing tile. Firebricks were made in all shapes and sizes required for refractory purposes. The LABCO face bricks were used mostly on the fronts of buildings. Hollow tiles were used in interior walls. Paving bricks were used in sidewalks and floors, such as can be seen at the Union Station in Los Angeles. A significant number of buildings and homes in Los Angeles was probably constructed of these bricks during the active years of this yard.

In 1936, the company changed its name to the Los Angeles Brick and Clay Products Company to reflect the manufacture of other clay products. In 1957, the office was moved from Mission Road to 2310 East Seventh Street in Los Angeles. In 1963, the Los Angeles Brick and Clay Products Company was acquired by Pacific Clay Products of Los Angeles (see Pacific Clay Products, Alberhill, for the continuation of the history of this plant.

LABCo Bricks

LABCo Firebrick

The LABCo Crescent firebrick is buff and uniform in color. Form is excellent with straight sharp edges and dull corners. Surface is smooth tiny rusty iron oxide spots, and weak transverse velour texture with longitudinal grooves. Ends have steep angled wire-cut grooves. Faces display weak transverse velour texture with longitudinal grooves. The marked face displays the company abbreviations of "LABco" in recessed block letters that span 4 3/8 inches and stand 1 inch in height and are 1/8 inch in thickness. The lowercase "co" is 5/8 inch tall. Beneath the company abbreciations is a crescent shape imprint, 2 7/8 inches long and 1/2 inches wide, which may be turned upwards or downwards. Interior consists of 3 percent subrounded gray quartz and tiny rounded black iron oxides, all 1/16 to 1/4 inch in diameter, in a cream alumina clay body. This brick was made from 1926 to 1936, using the stiff-mud process. It is a standard or commercial firebrick for general purposes where heat is not excessive. Length 9, width 4 3/8, height 2 1/2 inches.

View of the marked face of the LABco common brick.
View of the marked face of the LABco Crescent firebrick. Donated by Ken Leonard.

View of the side of the LABco Crescent firebrick.
View of the side of the LABco Crescent firebrick.

View of the unmarked face of the LABco Crescent firebrick.
View of the unmarked face of the LABco Crescent firebrick.

View of the end of the LABco Crescent firebrick.
View of the end of the LABco Crescent firebrick.

View of the interior of the LABco Crescent firebrick showing gray quartz and tiny black iron oxides.
View of the interior of the LABco Crescent firebrick
showing gray quartz and tiny black iron oxides.

The LABCPCo ALBERHILL Crescent is a buff firebrick made from 1936 to 1963, using the dry-pressed process. The following examples show the marked face with the LABCPCo ALBERHILL logo over an upward pointing Crescent and the same logo over a downward pointing Crescent. Form is excellent with straight sharp edges and sharp corners. The surface is smooth and crackled and has some pits. A fine screen-like imprint, probably made by a conveyor belt, may be present. The LABCPCo-ALBERHILL logo is 4 inches long and 1 3/4 inches wide, with two round screw imprints 3/8 inch in diameter at each end. The crescent is 3 inches long and 5/8 inch wide. Interior contains 5 percent subangular cream flint clay and gray quartz, 1/16 to 1/4 inch in diameter, in a granular cream alumina clay body. Length 9, width 4 1/2, height 2 1/2 inches.

View of the marked face of the LABCPCo Crescent firebrick.
View of the marked face of the LABCPCo Crescent firebrick.

View of the marked face of the LABCPCo Crescent firebrick.
View of the marked face of the LABCPCo Crescent firebrick. Photo courtesy of Douglas S. McIntosh.

The LABCPCo ALBERHILL CROWN is a buff firebrick made from 1936 to 1963, using the dry-pressed process. When new it has a smooth surface with straight sharp edges and sharp corners. The marked face has the recessed imprint of the LABCPCo ALBERHILL logo above the brand name "CROWN." It is open in texture and free from lamination and tendency to spall. It can withstand sudden changes of temperature without spalling or cracking or shrinkage.

View of the marked face of the LABCPCo Crescent firebrick.
View of the marked face of the LABCPCo CROWN firebrick. Photo courtesy of George L. Kennedy.

The LABco APEX was a "First Quality" firebrick made from 1926 to 1936, using the handmade process. The marked face is imprinted with "LAB co" in recessed letters on the first line and "1-W" on the second line. In the second example below, another similar brand is marked with a "2-W" on the second line. The company catalog stated that it was a better grade than the regular standard or commercial quality firebrick. It can withstand high temperatures and load conditions without spalling and cracking. No dimensions are available.

View of the marked face of the LABco APEX 1-W firebrick.
View of the marked face of the LABco APEX 1-W firebrick. Photo courtesy of James Freedner.

View of the marked face of the LABco APEX 2-W firebrick.
View of the marked face of the LABco APEX 2-W firebrick. Photo courtesy of Eric Geisert.

The LABco ALUMINITE was one of the early firebricks, made from 1926 to 1936, using the dry-pressed process. The marked face has the company abbreviations "LAB co" in recessed letters over the brand name "ALUMINITE" inside a shallow rectangular frog. The name suggests a clay of high alumina content.

View of the marked face of the LABco ALUMINITE firebrick.
View of the marked face of the LABco ALUMINITE firebrick. Photo courtesy of Adam Jerome.

The LABCo ALBERHILL H-I-ALUMINA was an "Extra Quality" firebrick, made from 1930s to 1936, using the handmade process. The form is excellent with straight sharp edges and dull corners. Surface is smooth with some pits. The example shown below has been blackened from use. The marked face has a recessed imprint of the LABCo ALBERHILL logo, 3 5/8 inches long and 3 1/2 inches wide, over the brand name "H-I-ALUMINA" that spans 6 3/8 inches and stand 3/4 inch in height. The brand name is inside a beveled sided rectangular frog that is 7 inches long, 1 inch wide, and 1/16 inch deep. Round screw imprints can be seen over the "o" in LABCo and over the "H" in in the brand name. Interior consists of 20 percent subangular white flint clay and gray quartz, 1/16 to 1/8 in diameter, in a fine alumina clay body. It was made from clay high in alumina and free from fluxing impurities. It was recommended for all purposes where conditions were most severe and heat very high. It did not spall, crack, or distort under the most severe conditions such as high intermittent heat and heavy loads. This brick is large and heavy, weighing 8 1/2 pounds. Length 9 1/4, width 4 5/8, height 2 3/4 inches.

Marked face of the LABCo ALBERHILL H-I Alumina firebrick
View of the marked face of the LABCo ALBERHILL H-I-ALUMINA firebrick. Donated by Josh Higgins.

Marked face of the LABCO ALBERHILL H-I Aluminite firebrick
View of the interior of the LABCo ALBERHILL H-I-ALUMINA firebrick
showing mostly white flinty clay in an alumina clay body.

The LABCPCo ALBERHILL H-I-ALUMINA was an "Extra Quality" firebrick, made from 1936 to 1963, using the handmade process. The form is excellent with straight sharp edges and dull corners. Surface is smooth with some pits. The marked face has the recessed imprint of the LABCPCo ALBERHILL logo, 4 1/4 inches long and 2 1/2 inches wide, including the brand name "H-I-ALUMINA" that spans 4 1/4 inches and stands 1/2 inch in height. Interior consists of 20 percent subangular white flint clay and gray quartz, 1/16 to 1/8 in diameter, in a fine alumina clay body. It was made from clay high in alumina and free from fluxing impurities. It was recommended for all purposes where conditions were most severe and heat very high. It did not spall, crack, or distort under the most severe conditions such as high intermittent heat and heavy loads.

View of the marked face of the LABCPCo ALBERHILL HI-ALUMINA firebrick.
View of the marked face of the LABCPCo ALBERHILL HI-ALUMINA firebrick. Photo courtesy of BreAnna Havel.

The LABCPCo ALBERHILL H-I-PYRA was a high quality firebrick, made from 1936 to 1963, using the dry-pressed process. The form is excellent with straight sharp edges and dull corners. Surface is smooth, crackled, with some pits. The marked face has the recessed imprint of the LABCPCo ALBERHILL logo, 4 1/4 inches long and 2 1/2 inches wide, 3 5/8 inches long and 3 1/2 inches wide, including the brand name "H-I-PYRA" that spans 3 1/2 inches and stands 1/2 inch in height. Interior contains 10 percent subangular cream flint clay and gray quartz, 1/16 to 1/8 inch in diameter, in a granular cream alumina clay body. Length 9 1/4, width 4 1/2, height 2 1/2 inches. A split shape is 1 1/4 inch in height.

Marked face of the LABCPCo Alberhill H-I-PYRA firebrick
View of the marked face of the LABCPCo ALBERHILL H-I-PYRA firebrick. Photo courtesy of Douglas S. McIntosh

A key-shaped LABCPCO H-I-PYRA was made with the designation "1-K" below the brand name. This mark lacks the LABCPCo-ALBERHILL logo shown in the previous example above.

Marked face of the LABCPCO H-I-PYRA 1-K firebrick
View of the marked face of the LAPCPCO H-I-PYRA 1-K key firebrick. Photo courtesy of Robert Streaker.

The LABco 1-W is a wedge-shaped firebrick with a smooth surface and visible round brown iron oxides up to 1/4 inch in diameter. The marked face has the company abbreviations "LAB co." in recessed letter that span 4 3/8 inches and stand 3/4 inch in height. The lower case "co" is 1/2 inch in height. The following period is square shaped. This sits inside a rectangular frog 5 1/8 inches long, 1 1/4 inches wide, and 1/16 inch deep. Interior consists of 15 percent subangular gray quartz and brown iron oxides, some blistered, all 1/16 to 1/8 inch in diameter, in a cream alumina clay body. This brick was made by the handmade process from 1926 to 1936. The abundance of iron oxides indicates that this was a low-duty firebrick, probably used for insulation purposes or low-heat conditions. Length 8 1/4, width 6 1/8, height 2 1/4 to 1 3/4.

View of the marked face of the LABco 1-W firebrick wedge.
View of the marked face of the LABco 1-W firebrick wedge. Donated by George L. Kennedy.

View of the side of the LABco 1-W firebrick wedge.
View of the side of the LABco 1-W firebrick wedge.

View of the unmarked face of the LABco 1-W firebrick wedge.
View of the unmarked face of the LABco 1-W firebrick wedge.

View of the interior of the LABco 1-W firebrick wedge.
View of the interior of the LABco 1-W firebrick wedge.

The LABco 2-A is an arch-shaped firebrick with a smooth surface and visible round brown iron oxides up to 1/4 inch in diameter. The marked face has the company abbreviations "LAB co" in recessed letter that span 3 1/2 inches and stand 3/4 inch in height. The lower case "co" is 1/2 inch in height. This sits inside a rectangular frog 5 1/2 inches long, 1 inches wide, and 1/16 inch deep. Interior consists of 15 percent subangular white flinty clay, subangular gray quartz and brown iron oxides, some blistered, all 1/16 to 1/2 inch in diameter, in a fine cream alumina clay body. This brick was made by the stiff-mud process and repressed. It was made in the period from 1926 to 1936. The abundance of iron oxides indicates that this was a low-duty firebrick, probably used for insulation purposes or low-heat conditions. It could have also been used as face brick. Length 9, width 4 1/2, height 2 1/2 to 1 7/8.

Marked side of the LABco 2-A arch firebrick
View of the marked face of the LABco 2-A firebrick arch. Photo courtesy of George L. Kennedy.

View of the end of the LABco 2-A arch firebrick.
View of the end of the LABco 2-A firebrick arch.

View of the interior of the LABco 2-A arch firebrick
View of the interior of the LABco 2-A firebrick arch
showing mostly white flinty clay in an alumina clay body.

LABCo Face Brick

The L.A.B.CO ALBERHILL face brick is a cream color and has a smooth surface with minor pits and faint longitudinal striations. The ends display angled wire-cut grooves. The marked face has a single line of recessed letters of "L.A.B. CO ALBERHILL" that may be truncated on the ends. This mark was applied by a roller on the extruding bar. This brick was made from 1926 to 1936, using the stiff-mud process. No dimensions are available.

View of the marked face of the L.A.B.CO ALBERHILL face brick.
View of the marked face of the L.A.B.CO ALBERHILL face brick. Photo courtesy of Henry Lara.

A light brown colored face brick is an arch-shape that was made in the 1925 to 1936 period. It has a smooth surface with curved wire-cut grooves on its faces normal to a faint velour texture. Round black iron oxides are visible on the surface. Form is excellent with straight sharp edges and sharp corners. The marked face has the company abbreviations "LAB co" recessed in a shallow rectangular plate that spans the length of the brick and is held by two round screws before and after the name. Beneath in a shallow rectangular frog is the type "1-A" recessed in block letters. Interior contains a few black iron oxides in a light colored alumina clay body. This brick was made using the stiff-mud process and repressed. No dimensions are available.

View of the marked face of the LABco 1-A face brick.
View of the marked face of the LABco 1-A face brick. Photo courtesy of Josh Higgins.

An earlier buff face brick is a wedge-shape that was made in the 1925 to 1936 period. It has a smooth surface with faint angled velour texture on its faces indicating a wire-cut face. Form is excellent with straight sharp edges and sharp corners. Two styles of markings are shown below. The first brick shows the company abbreviations "LAB co." in recessed letters on the face with a square period. Beneath is a shallow rectangular frog containing the type "2-W" in recessed block letters. The marked face of the second brick has two shallow rectangular frogs with the top one imprinted with the company abbreviations "L.A.B co" in recessed letters and the periods are square. The lower one is imprinted with "2-W" in recessed block lettering. This brick was made using the stiff-mud process and repressed. Length 8 3/4 - 9, width 4 3/8 - 4 1/2, height 2 1/2 - 1 3/4 inches.

marked face of the LABCo 2-W firebrick

marked face of the LABCo 2-W firebrick
Photo courtesy of Candy and Bill Riley

LABCo Paving Brick

The L.A.B.co ALBERHILL red paving brick was made from 1926-1936, using the stiff-mud process. The sides and faces are smooth with faint longitudinal striations. The ends display angled wire-cut grooves. The long edges are rounded and the shorter edges are sharp. The marked side displays recessed letters "L.A.B. co ALBERHILL," which are 1/2 inch in height and in italics, and off-centered and truncated at either ends. This was applied by a roller on the extruding bar. Tiny white quartz clasts may be visible on the surface. Length 8 1/4 - 8 1/2, width 4, height 2 3/8 inches.

Marked side of the L.A.B.Co Alberhill paver brick
View of the marked face of the L.A.B.co ALBERHILL paving brick.

LABCo Hollow Tile

The LABCO ALBERHILL red hollow tile was made from 1930-1936, using the stiff-mud process. The sides are scored with longitudinal grooves 1/8 inch in thickness spaced evenly about 3/8 inch apart. The ends display angled wire-cut grooves. The example shown is a three-partition hollow tile. The marked side displays recessed letters "LABCO ALBERHILL" which are 3/8 inch in height and truncated at both ends. This was applied by a roller on the extruding bar. Interior contains tiny white quartz, 1/32 inch in diameter, in a fine laminated clay body. The partitioned end is 11 3/4 inches in length and 3 7/8 inches in width. Two of the partitions are 3 1/4 inches in length and 2 3/8 inches in width. One of the partitions is 3 inches in length and 2 3/8 inches in width. The longer narrow side is 7 3/4 inches in length and the shorter narrow side is 4 inches in length.

View of the marked side of the LABCO ALBERHILL hollow tile.
View of the marked side of the LABCO ALBERHILL hollow tile. Donated by George L. Kennedy.

View of the marked side of the LABCO ALBERHILL hollow tile.
View of the unmarked side of the LABCO ALBERHILL hollow tile.

View of the end of the LABCO ALBERHILL hollow tile showing three partitions.
View of the end of the LABCO ALBERHILL hollow tile showing three partitions and wire-cut marks.

View of the longer narrow side of the LABCO ALBERHILL hollow tile.
View of the longer narrow side of the LABCO ALBERHILL hollow tile.

References

Aubrey, Lewis E., The Structural and Industrial Materials of California, California Mining Bureau Bulletin 38, Sacramento, CA, 1906.

Brick, v. 12, no. 2, February 1900, p. 97.

Brick, v. 24, no. 5, May 1906, p. 260.

Clay Worker, v. 33, no. 2, February 1900, p. 184.

Daviess, S. N., and Bramlette, M. N., The Alberhill and Other Clay Deposits of Temescal Canyon, Riverside County, California, U. S. Geological Survey Open File Report, September 1942.

Davis, L. E., California, U. S. Bureau of Mines Minerals Yearbook Area Reports: Domestic 1967, v. 3, 1968.

Dietrich, Waldemar Fenn, The Clay Resources and the Ceramic Industry of California, California State Mining Bureau Bulletin 99, 1928.

Double Output of Brick Plant, Los Angeles Times, November 27, 1921.

Freedner, James, written communications per bricks, 2007.

Gale Directory of Company Histories, Pacific Clay Products Inc., The Gale Group, Inc., 2006, http://www.answers.com/topic/pacific-clay-products-inc (accessed 1/26/2011).

Gray, Cliffton H., Jr., Geology of the Corona South Quandrangle and the Santa Ana Narrows Area, Riverside, Orange, and San Bernardino Counties, California, and Mines and Mineral Deposits of the Corona South Quadrangle, Riverside and Orange Counties, California, California Division of Mines Bulletin 178, 1961.

Geisert, Eric, written communications per bricks, 2015.

Havel, BreAnna, written communications per bricks, 2004.

Higgins, Josh, written communications per company bricks, stamp roller, and catalog, 2012.

Jerome, Adam, written communications per bricks, 2013.

Kennedy, George L., written communications per bricks, 2015.

Lara, Henry, written communications per bricks, 2014.

Los Angeles Brick Adding Kiln, Brick and Clay Record, v. 77, no. 11, 1930, p. 583.

Los Angeles Brick Adding Kiln, Brick and Clay Record, v. 78, no. 2, 1931, p. 71.

Los Angeles Brick Company, Fire Brick, Catalog, February 1926.

Los Angeles Brick Plans $100,000 Improvements, Brick and Clay Record, v. 77, no. 13, 1930, p. 696.

Los Angeles City Directory, 1900.

Los Angeles City Directory, 1924.

Los Angeles Co. Will Enlarge, Brick and Clay Record, v. 59, no. 6, 1921, p. 447.

Los Angeles Herald, May 17, 1907.

McIntosh, Douglas S., written communications per bricks, 2013.

Merrill, F. J. H., Los Angeles County, Orange County, and Riverside County, California State Mining Bureau 15th Report, pt. 4, December 1917.

Plans Building New Plant, Brick and Clay Record, v. 60, no. 2, 1922, p. 135.

Primary Unit of Brick Plant Built, Brick and Clay Record, v. 67, no. 5, 1925, p. 350.

Streaker, Robert, written communications per bricks, 2009.

Three New Incorporations, Los Angeles Herald, January 10, 1900.

Tucker, W.B., and Sampson, R.J., Mines and Mineral Resources of Riverside County, California State Mining Bureau, California Journal of Mines and Geology, v. 41, no. 3, 1945, p. 121-182.

Copyright 2016 Dan Mosier

Contact Dan Mosier at danmosier@earthlink.net.